This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Toxic parts

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2]. It can be eaten out of hand, used in pies, preserves etc, or can be dried for later use[3][4][5][6]. The fruit is small and not very palatable[3]. A sour flavour with a thick skin[7], though the flavour is improved tremendously if the fruit is harvested after being touched by a few frosts[5]. The fruit is about 3cm in diameter and contains one large seed[8]. Seed - raw or cooked. The seed contains prussic acid and there have been cases recorded of children dying after eating fruits without removing the stones[5]. See the notes above on toxicity.

Fruit

Material uses

A green dye can be obtained from the leaves[9].

A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit[9]. The inner bark has been used as an astringent colour fixative in dyeing with other plants[6].

Wood - hard, moderately heavy, close grained[1][7]. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot[10]. The tree is too small to be used commercially[7].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

An infusion of the inner bark has been used in the treatment of colds[6].

An infusion of the bark has been used to settle the stomach when it will not retain food[6].

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being[11].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[8]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible[8]. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate[12]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame[13][8]. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame[8].

Layering in spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Prunus nigra. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil, growing well on limestone[13][8]. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present[14]. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position[13][8].

Sometimes cultivated as a fruit tree in Canada and America, there are some named varieties that have been selected for their edible fruit[1]. This species is closely related to P. americana[13]. A bad companion for potatoes, the plum tree harbours aphids that can damage the potatoes[7]. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged[11].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[8].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Prunus nigra. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Prunus nigra.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Prunus nigra
Genus
Prunus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    9 x meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.88.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    12. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    14. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    15. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)


    Facts about "Prunus nigra"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyRosaceae +
    Belongs to genusPrunus +
    Has binomial namePrunus nigra +
    Has common nameCanadian Plum +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit + and Seed +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone2 +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye +, Mordant + and Wood +
    Has mature height9 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal usePectoral + and Stomachic +
    Has search nameprunus nigra + and canadian plum +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy namePrunus nigra +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy + and Secondary canopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Prunus nigra +, Prunus nigra +, Prunus nigra +, Prunus nigra +, Prunus nigra +, Prunus nigra + and Prunus nigra +