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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked.

Inner bark - raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups or added to cereal flours when making bread etc[1][2][3][4][5]. It can also be chewed as a thirst quencher[6]. The inner bark has been cooked with fats in order to prevent them becoming rancid[7]. Immature fruit - raw or cooked[8]. The fruit is about 20mm in diameter[9].

A tea-like beverage can be brewed from the inner bark[7].

Fruit

Inner bark

Leaves

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

A fibre obtained from the inner bark is used to make a twine[10][7]. The boiled bark has been used for making matting, nets etc[7].

The inner bark has been used in making baskets[7]. The bark has been used as a roofing material[7]. The weathered bark has been used as kindling for starting a fire[7].

Wood - very close-grained, tough, heavy, hard, strong, durable, easy to split. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot and is used for fence posts, window sills, agricultural implements etc[3][11][12][6].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Slippery elm bark is a widely used herbal remedy and is considered to be one of the most valuable of remedies in herbal practice[13]. In particular, it is a gentle and effective remedy for irritated states of the mucous membranes of the chest, urinary tubules, stomach and intestines[14]. The inner bark contains large quantities of a sticky slime that can be dried to a powder or made into a liquid[15]. The inner bark is harvested in the spring from the main trunk and from larger branches, it is then dried and powdered for use as required[13]. Ten year old bark is said to be best[13]. Fine grades of the powder are best for internal use, coarse grades are better suited to poultices[16]. The plant is also part of a North American formula called essiac which is a popular treatment for cancer. Its effectiveness has never been reliably proven or disproven since controlled studies have not been carried out. The other herbs included in the formula are Arctium lappa, Rumex acetosella and Rheum palmatum[14].

The inner bark is demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, nutritive[13][17][18][19]. It has a soothing and healing effect on all parts of the body that it comes into contact with[13] and is used in the treatment of sore throats, indigestion, digestive irritation, stomach ulcers etc[20]. It used to be frequently used as a food that was a nutritive tonic for the old, young and convalescents[20]. It was also applied externally to fresh wounds, burns and scalds[20]. The bark has been used as an antioxidant to prevent fats going rancid[20].

The whole bark, including the outer bark, has been used as a mechanical irritant to abort foetuses[16]. Its use became so widespread that it is now banned in several countries[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - if sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe, it usually germinates within a few days[9]. Stored seed does not germinate so well and should be sown in early spring[9], it requires 2 - 3 months stratification according to another report[21]. The seed can also be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it dries on the tree) and sown immediately in a cold frame. It should germinate very quickly and will produce a larger plant by the end of the growing season[22]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Plants should not be allowed to grow for more than two years in a nursery bed since they form a tap root and will then move badly. Layering of suckers or coppiced shoots[9].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ulmus rubra. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a fertile soil in full sun[23], but can be grown in any soil of at least moderate quality so long as it is well drained[24].

Plants are hardy to about -10°c[16]. A moderately fast-growing tree, living about 200 years in the wild[15], but although perfectly hardy, this species does not usually thrive in Britain[25]. Trees are often harvested in the wild for their edible inner bark, the 'slippery elm' that can be obtained from chemists and health food shops[K]. Trees have been over-exploited in the wild, plus they have also suffered from Dutch elm disease. As a result they are becoming much less common[16]. The slippery elm is very susceptible to 'Dutch elm disease', a disease that has destroyed the greater part of all the elm trees growing in Britain. The disease is spread by means of beetles. There is no effective cure (1992) for the problem, but most E. Asian, though not Himalayan, species are resistant (though not immune) to the disease so the potential exists to use these resistant species to develop new resistant hybrids with the native species[9].

The various species of this genus hybridize freely with each other and pollen is easily saved, so even those species with different flowering times can be hybridized[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Ulmus rubra. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Ulmus rubra.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Ulmus rubra
Genus
Ulmus
Family
Ulmaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.8 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    19. ? 19.019.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    21. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    22. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    23. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    24. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    26. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Mature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Ulmus rubra"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyUlmaceae +
    Belongs to genusUlmus +
    Has binomial nameUlmus rubra +
    Has common nameSlippery Elm +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit +, Inner bark +, Leaves + and Unknown part +
    Has edible useUnknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeWind +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageMature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useFibre +, Kindling +, Roofing +, Tinder + and Wood +
    Has mature height20 +
    Has mature width15 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useDemulcent +, Diuretic +, Emollient +, Expectorant + and Nutritive +
    Has primary imageMature Ulmus rubra in graveyard.jpg +
    Has search nameulmus rubra + and slippery elm +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameUlmus rubra +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra +, Ulmus rubra + and Ulmus rubra +