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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked. The red inner bark has been used to make a coffee-like drink[1].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper[2]. The stems are harvested in spring, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by scraping or peeling. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten with mallets. The paper is beige in colour[2].

The inner bark is very fibrous and is used in making string and strong ropes[3][4]. The bark has been used to make various containers, including those used for gathering maple syrup[4].

Wood - hard, strong, heavy, durable, coarse grained, shrinks moderately though it tends to warp and twist, it bends well and is difficult to split. The wood is very durable in water. It weighs 40lb per cubic foot and is harvested commercially for flooring, wheel hubs, cooperage, agricultural implements and many other uses[5][6][7][3][8][4][9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

An infusion made from the bark has been used in the treatment of bleeding from the lungs, ruptures, coughs, colds, influenza, dysentery, eye infections, cramps and diarrhoea[4][1]. An infusion of the bark has been taken by pregnant women to secure stability of children[1]. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash on wounds[1].

A decoction of the inner bark has been taken in the treatment of severe coughs, colds, menstrual cramps[1]. An infusion of the inner bark has been drunk, and used as a bath, in the treatment of appendicitis[1].

An infusion of the root bark has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and excessive menstruation[1]. A decoction has been used as an eye wash in the treatment of sore eyes[1]. The inner bark has been used as an emollient on tumours[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - if sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe, it usually germinates within a few days[10]. Stored seed does not germinate so well and should be sown in early spring[10]. The seed can also be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it dries on the tree) and sown immediately in a cold frame. It should germinate very quickly and will produce a larger plant by the end of the growing season[11]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Plants should not be allowed to grow for more than two years in a nursery bed since they form a tap root and will then move badly. Layering of suckers or coppiced shoots[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ulmus americana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a fertile soil in full sun[12], but it can be grown in any soil of at least moderate quality so long as it is well drained[13].

Trees are moderately fast-growing and live for at least 300 years in the wild[9][14], but they do not thrive in Britain[13]. This species is particularly susceptible to 'Dutch elm disease'[15], a disease that has destroyed the greater part of all the elm trees growing in Britain. The disease is spread by means of beetles. Mature trees killed back by the disease will often regrow from suckers, but these too will succumb when they get larger. There is no effective cure (1992) for the problem, but most E. Asian, though not Himalayan, species are resistant (though not immune) to the disease so the potential exists to use these resistant species to develop new resistant hybrids with the native species[10].

The various species of this genus hybridize freely with each other and pollen is easily saved, so even those species with different flowering times can be hybridized[10].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Ulmus americana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Ulmus americana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Ulmus americana
Genus
Ulmus
Family
Ulmaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.10 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    11. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    12. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    14. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    15. ? Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
    16. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-11
    17. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Ulmus americana0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Ulmus americana"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyUlmaceae +
    Belongs to genusUlmus +
    Has binomial nameUlmus americana +
    Has common nameAmerican Elm +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Leaves +
    Has edible useCoffee + and Unknown use +
    Has fertility typeWind +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageUlmus americana0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useContainers +, Paper +, String + and Wood +
    Has mature height25 +
    Has mature width25 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Astringent +, Birthing aid +, Haemostatic + and Salve +
    Has primary imageUlmus americana0.jpg +
    Has search nameulmus americana + and american elm +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameUlmus americana +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana +, Ulmus americana + and Ulmus americana +