This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Toxic parts

If the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves - raw[2][3][4]. Excellent in salads, they are mild and mucilaginous.

A refreshing tea is made from the dried flowers[4]. A honey-like fragrance[4]. Some caution is advised, see notes above on toxicity. Flowers - used as a vegetable[4]. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose[5][6]. Sap - used as a drink or concentrated to make a syrup and used as a sweetener[1][6][4].

An edible manna is obtained from the tree[4]. No further details, does this report refer to the sap?

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc[7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is also suitable for cloth[6]. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 - 30cm in diameter[6]. The fibre can also be used for making paper[13]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige in colour[13]. Wood - soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items[1][8][10][11][6]. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing[10][11][6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable[14]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative[1][14][8][15][16]. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation[1][16]. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc[15]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[16]. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[17]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[17]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[17]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[17]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[18].

Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[19].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Tilia x europaea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but succeeds on slightly acid soils[20][19]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soil[19]. Succeeds on poorer soils than T. platyphyllos[20][9]. Tolerates considerable exposure[21].

A very valuable bee plant[20]. The flowers are toxic to bees[22]. A food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[23]. This tree is frequently infested by aphis[24][19], which cover the ground and the leaves with a sticky honeydew[22]. Although a hybrid species, it does produce fertile seed in Britain[24]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[16]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. Easily transplanted, even when quite large, trees up to 60 years old have been moved successfully[7][25]. Can be coppiced, the tree produces suckers very freely[26][19]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[19].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Tilia x europaea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Tilia x europaea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Tilia x europaea
Genus
Tilia
Family
Tiliaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.7 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  18. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.419.519.619.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  21. ? ? The Plantsman. Vol. 5. 1983 - 1984. Royal Horticultural Society (1983-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  23. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
  25. ? Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  26. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()


Facts about "Tilia x europaea"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyTiliaceae +
Belongs to genusTilia +
Has binomial nameTilia x europaea +
Has common nameCommon Lime +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useChocolate +, Unknown use +, Manna +, Sweetener + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeInsects +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCharcoal +, Fibre +, Paper + and Wood +
Has mature height35 +
Has mature width15 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emollient +, Expectorant +, Hypotensive +, Sedative +, Skin + and Vasodilator +
Has search nametilia x europaea + and common lime +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameTilia x europaea +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea +, Tilia x europaea + and Tilia x europaea +