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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails[1]. Young shoots - raw or cooked. They are not very palatable[1].

Inner bark

Leaves

Material uses

The young stems are very flexible and are used in basket and furniture making[2][3]. The twigs can be split in half lengthways, sun-dried and used as the foundation of coiled basketry[4]. The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights.

A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper[5]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten with mallets or put through a blender. The paper is red/brown in colour[5]. The trees are often used in erosion control, their roots forming dense networks that stabilize stream banks[3]. The bark is a good source of tannin[6][7]. A decoction or infusion of the bark can be used as a hair wash to make the hair grow[4].

Wood - not durable, light, soft and weak but does not splinter, warp or check[8][9]. The wood is tough and fairly strong according to another report[2]. It weighs 27lb per cubic foot[7]. Used where strength is not important, for artificial limbs, barn floors etc[8][10][9]. A good charcoal is also obtained from the wood[11].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative, tonic[12][13][14][15][16]. It has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, ovarian pains and nocturnal emissions[12]. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache[17]. The bark can be used as a poultice on cuts, wounds, sprains, bruises, swellings etc[4]. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use[17].

The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic[17]. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried[17].

The fresh bark contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body[18]. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge[18] and as an ingredient of spring tonics[3].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - must be surface sown as soon as it is ripe in late spring. It has a very short viability, perhaps as little as a few days.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, November to February in a sheltered outdoor bed or planted straight into their permanent position and given a good weed-suppressing mulch. Very easy. Plant into their permanent positions in the autumn.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June to August in a frame. Very easy.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Salix nigra. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils, including wet, ill-drained or intermittently flooded soils[19][20], but prefers a damp, heavy soil in a sunny position[21]. Rarely thrives on chalk[21].

A fast-growing but relatively short-lived species, it can reach 15 metres tall within 10 years from seed in the wild[3]. Twigs tend to break off easily in storms, these will then often root and grow into new trees[22]. A good bee plant, providing an early source of nectar[20]. Trees are impatient of root disturbance and should be moved regularly before being planted in their permanent positions, which is best done whilst the plants are young[20]. The root system is rather aggressive and can cause problems with drains[21]. Plants should not be grown within 10 metres of buildings. Closely related to Salix caroliniana, hybridising with that species where their ranges overlap[23]. This species is also likely to hybridize freely with other members of this genus[21]. Although the flowers are produced in catkins early in the year, they are pollinated by bees and other insects rather than by the wind[20]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[21]. Seedlings are very fast-growing, they can reach 1.2 metres tall in their first year[20]. Plants are used commercially for papermaking[5].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Salix nigra. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Salix nigra.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Salix nigra
Genus
Salix
Family
Salicaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.2 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 ? Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. ()
    11. ? 11.011.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    19. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.421.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    22. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    23. ? Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
    24. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Salix-nigra(01).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Salix nigra"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familySalicaceae +
    Belongs to genusSalix +
    Functions asEarth stabiliser +
    Has binomial nameSalix nigra +
    Has common nameBlack Willow +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partInner bark + and Leaves +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bees +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageSalix-nigra(01).jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useBasketry +, Charcoal +, Hair care +, Paper +, Tannin + and Wood +
    Has mature height12 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnodyne +, Antiinflammatory +, Antiperiodic +, Antiseptic +, Astringent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge +, Hypnotic +, Sedative + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageSalix-nigra(01).jpg +
    Has search namesalix nigra + and black willow +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameSalix nigra +
    Has water requirementshigh +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra +, Salix nigra + and Salix nigra +