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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails[1].

Young shoots - raw or cooked. They are not very palatable[1].

The source of an edible manna[2]. No further details.

Inner bark

Leaves

Sap

Material uses

The stems are very flexible and are used in basket making[3]. The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights.

The bark is tough and flexible, it is used as a substitute for leather[4]. The bark contains around 10% tannin[5]. The plant is fast growing and tolerant of maritime exposure, it can be used as a windbreak hedge and shelterbelt though it is of untidy habit[6]. The seeds are very light and so can travel some distance in the wind. The plant is therefore able to find its way to areas such as cleared woodland where the soil has been disturbed. Seedlings will grow away quickly, even in exposed conditions and the plant will provide good shelter for the establishment of woodland plants. Thus it makes a good pioneer species and, except in wetter and moorland-type soils, will eventually be largely out-competed by the other woodland trees. Its main disadvantage as a pioneer plant is that it has an extensive root system and is quite a greedy plant, thus it will not help as much in enriching the soil for the other woodland plants as other pioneer species such as the alders, Alnus species[K]. Some cultivars can be grown as ground cover[7]. 'Pendula' is female whilst 'Kilmarnock' is a male, they should be spaced about 1.5 metres apart each way[7].

Wood - soft, elastic, easily split. Used for baskets, rugs etc[8][3]. A good quality charcoal is made from the wood[8][3].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin[9], which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body[10]. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge[9].

A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers[11]. A distilled water from the flowers is aphrodisiac, cordial and stimulant[11]. It is used externally in the treatment of headaches and ophthalmia[11]. The ashes of the wood are useful in the treatment of haemoptysis[11]. The stems and the leaves are astringent[11].

A gum and the juice of the trees are used to increase visual powers[11].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy, Secondary canopy or Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover


Hedge


Pioneer


Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - must be surface sown as soon as it is ripe in late spring. It has a very short viability, perhaps as little as a few days.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, November to February in a sheltered outdoor bed or planted straight into their permanent position and given a good weed-suppressing mulch. Cuttings of this species do not root well[12]. Plant into their permanent positions in the autumn.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June to August in a frame. Cuttings of this species do not root well[12].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Salix caprea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils, including wet, ill-drained or intermittently flooded soils[13], but prefers a damp, heavy soil in a sunny position. Grows in drier soils than any other British species of Salix[14]. Rarely thrives on chalk[12]. Plants are found most frequently on basic soils in the wild[15]. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and exposed positions, including maritime exposure[6][14].

A fast growing tree, it establishes well[6]. The tree has an untidy habit[6]. A light demanding tree, it becomes tall and drawn when grown in woodland, though it grows well along the sunnier edges[14]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[12]. Although the flowers are produced in catkins early in the year, they are pollinated by bees and other insects rather than by the wind[16]. Trees are very tolerant of cutting, they coppice well[14]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[12].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Salix caprea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Salix caprea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Salix caprea
Genus
Salix
Family
Salicaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
10 x 8 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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"image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  5. ? 5.05.1 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.6 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  13. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)

"image:Illustration Salix caprea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Salix caprea"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familySalicaceae +
Belongs to genusSalix +
Functions asGround cover +, Hedge +, Pioneer + and Windbreak +
Has binomial nameSalix caprea +
Has common nameGoat Willow +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partInner bark +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useUnknown use + and Manna +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure + and High wind +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bees +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageIllustration Salix caprea0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Charcoal +, Leather +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height10 +
Has mature width8 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnodyne +, Aphrodisiac +, Astringent +, Febrifuge +, Ophthalmic + and Stimulant +
Has primary imageIllustration Salix caprea0.jpg +
Has search namesalix caprea + and goat willow +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameSalix caprea +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +, Secondary canopy + and Soil surface +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea +, Salix caprea + and Salix caprea +