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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked[1][2][3][4]. The seed is up to 25mm long and wide[5]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Unknown part

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[6].

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[7]. The bark is a source of tannin[8][9][10]. A yellow dye is obtained from this tree[11]. The bark is a rich source[12][8][9][10] whilst the seed can also be used[13]. The dye is reddish-yellow according to one report and does not need a mordant[4].

Wood - heavy, hard, strong, coarse grained. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot[5]. Of little value except as a fuel[9][10]. Commercially important according to another report[11]. The wood is used for rough lumber, cross-ties etc[5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The inner bark contains quercitannic acid and is used medicinally, mainly as a mild astringent[5]. It is inferior to the bark of white oaks because it contains large amounts of tannin[5].

The bark is astringent, disinfectant, emetic, febrifuge and tonic[4]. It is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, intermittent fevers, indigestion, asthma and lost voice[4]. An infusion has been used as a gargle for sore throats, hoarseness colds etc[4]. The bark can be chewed as a treatment for mouth sores[4]. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for sore and chapped skin[4]. A decoction of the crushed bark has been used as a wash for sore eyes[4].

Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[12]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus velutina. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[13][12]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[14]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[14].

Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, trees often grow poorly in this country and fail to properly ripen their wood resulting in frost damage overwinter[14]. A fairly fast-growing tree[15]. Rather slow-growing according to another report which also says that trees rarely live longer than 200 years[5]. Trees commence bearing seeds when 15 - 20 years old. Production is cyclic with a year of high yields being followed by 1 - 2 years of low yields[11]. The seed takes 2 summers to ripen[16]. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value[14]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[12]. Established trees often produce lots of suckers[16]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[14].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[14].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus velutina. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus velutina.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus velutina
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
?
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus velutina 001.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  4. ? 4.004.014.024.034.044.054.064.074.084.094.10 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.8 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  15. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  17. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

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Facts about "Quercus velutina"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusQuercus +
Has binomial nameQuercus velutina +
Has common nameBlack Oak +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useCoffee + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has imageQuercus velutina 001.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Fuel +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width25 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiaphonic +, Astringent +, Disinfectant +, Emetic +, Febrifuge +, Ophthalmic +, Salve + and Tonic +
Has primary imageQuercus velutina 001.jpg +
Has search namequercus velutina + and black oak +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceLoamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameQuercus velutina +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina +, Quercus velutina + and Quercus velutina +