Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff. The bark is a source of tannin. A yellow dye is obtained from this tree. The bark is a rich source whilst the seed can also be used. The dye is reddish-yellow according to one report and does not need a mordant.Wood - heavy, hard, strong, coarse grained. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot. Of little value except as a fuel. Commercially important according to another report. The wood is used for rough lumber, cross-ties etc.
The bark is astringent, disinfectant, emetic, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, intermittent fevers, indigestion, asthma and lost voice. An infusion has been used as a gargle for sore throats, hoarseness colds etc. The bark can be chewed as a treatment for mouth sores. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for sore and chapped skin. A decoction of the crushed bark has been used as a wash for sore eyes.Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc.
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Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, trees often grow poorly in this country and fail to properly ripen their wood resulting in frost damage overwinter. A fairly fast-growing tree. Rather slow-growing according to another report which also says that trees rarely live longer than 200 years. Trees commence bearing seeds when 15 - 20 years old. Production is cyclic with a year of high yields being followed by 1 - 2 years of low yields. The seed takes 2 summers to ripen. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young. Established trees often produce lots of suckers. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus.Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
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