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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked[1][2][3]. A staple food for several native North American Indian tribes[3]. Up to 3cm long[4]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost[5]. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Unknown part

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[6].

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[7]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[8][9]. A reddish-brown dye can be obtained from the bark[3].

Wood - coarse-grained, hard, strong, heavy, not durable[10][8][9][11]. It weighs 41lb per cubic foot[12]. An important lumber source in America, it is highly valued for flooring, furniture, veneer, construction etc[10][8][9][11].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark and inner bark is antiseptic, astringent, emetic, febrifuge and tonic[3]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, indigestion, asthma, severe coughs, hoarseness, intermittent fevers, bleeding etc[13][3]. Externally, it is used as a wash for skin eruptions, rashes, burns etc[13][3]. The bark can be chewed as a treatment for mouth sores[3].

The bark contains tannins, experimentally these have been shown to be antiviral, antiseptic, anticancer and also carcinogenic[13].

Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[14]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus rubra. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[14]. Lime tolerant[15]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[4]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[4].

Prefers a hotter summer than is usually experienced in Britain[4], but trees still grow well in Britain[14][4]. A fairly fast-growing tree[15], it is cultivated for its timber in C. Europe. Trees normally require 20 - 25 years to reach flowering size, and may take another 20 years before heavy crops of seed are produced[16]. Seed production is cyclic, heavy crops being produced every 2 - 5 years in the wild[16]. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed taking two summers to ripen[16]. Trees are able to regenerate from root suckers if the top is killed by a forest fire[11]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[14]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[4].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[4].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus rubra. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus rubra.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus rubra
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.83.9 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.74.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  17. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

"image:Quercus rubra 1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Quercus rubra"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusQuercus +
Has binomial nameQuercus rubra +
Has common nameRed Oak +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useCoffee + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageQuercus rubra 1.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has mature width18 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Antiviral +, Astringent +, Cancer +, Emetic +, Febrifuge +, Salve + and Tonic +
Has primary imageQuercus rubra 1.jpg +
Has search namequercus rubra + and red oak +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceLoamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameQuercus rubra +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra +, Quercus rubra + and Quercus rubra +