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Uses

Toxic parts

None known

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked[1][2][3][4]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[5][6]. An edible gum is obtained from the bark[7].

Unknown part

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[8][9]. Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[10]. The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[11]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The bark is very rich in calcium[4]. An ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron[12][13]. The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin[14]. Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves[15]. Wood - hard, tough, durable even under water. It is highly valued for furniture, construction etc[10][4][13]. It is also a good fuel and charcoal[16][6]. Trees can be coppiced to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc[17].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The oak tree has a long history of medicinal use. It is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, decongestant, haemostatic and tonic[10][12][18][4][5][19]. The bark is the part of the plant that is most commonly used[10], though other parts such as the galls, seeds and seed cups are also sometimes used[12]. A decoction of the bark is useful in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, haemorrhages etc[10]. Externally, it is used to bathe wounds, skin eruptions, sweaty feet, piles etc[18]. It is also used as a vaginal douche for genital inflammations and discharge, and also as a wash for throat and mouth infections[18]. The bark is harvested from branches 5 - 12 years old, and is dried for later use[18]. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[10]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Despondency', 'Despair, but never ceasing effort'[20]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the bark. It is used in the treatment of disorders of the spleen and gall bladder[18].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[21]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus petraea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[21]. Dislikes heavy clay[22]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[23]. Found mainly on acid soils in the wild. Thrives in well drained soils but is also tolerant of periodic flooding[24]. Tolerates exposure and strong winds if these are not salt-laden[24]. A very important timber tree in Britain, it is also a food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterfly[25], there are 284 insect species associated with this tree[26]. Trees were often coppiced or pollarded in the past for their wood[24], though this is best done on a long rotation of perhaps 50 years. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[23][27]. Older trees have a thick corky bark and this can protect them from forest fires, young trees will often regenerate from the base if cut down or killed back by a fire[24]. Trees transplant badly unless moved regularly[21]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[23]. Immune to attacks by the Tortix moth[28]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[29][23].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus petraea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus petraea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus petraea
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus petraea JPG2a.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus petraea JPG2a.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Quercus petraea JPG2a.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus petraea JPG2a.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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"image:Quercus petraea JPG2a.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-01-01)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-01-01)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers ISBN 0-7225-0445-4 (1977-01-01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-01-01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-01-01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-01-01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-01-01)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-01-01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-01-01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber ISBN 0-571-09990-4 (1977-01-01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-01-01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-01-01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 ? Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. ()
  15. ? 15.015.1 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-01-01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-01-01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Wright. D. Complete Book of Baskets and Basketry. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7449-4 (1977-01-01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.5 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-01-01)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  20. ? 20.020.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-01-01)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-01-01)
  22. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.323.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
  24. ? 24.024.124.224.3 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-01-01)
  25. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-01-01)
  26. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  27. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-01-01)
  28. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-01-01)
  29. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-01-01)
  30. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-01-01)
Facts about "Quercus petraea"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusQuercus +
Has binomial nameQuercus petraea +
Has common nameSessile Oak +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useCoffee +, Gum + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imageQuercus petraea JPG2a.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Charcoal +, Compost +, Fuel +, Ink +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height40 +
Has mature width25 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Astringent +, Bach +, Decongestant +, Haemostatic + and Tonic +
Has primary imageQuercus petraea JPG2a.jpg +
Has search namequercus petraea + and sessile oak +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceLoamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameQuercus petraea +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea +, Quercus petraea + and Quercus petraea +