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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[1][2][3]. A rather sweet flavour[4][5]. The seed is quite large, about 2 - 3cm long and 15 - 20mm wide[6][7], and unlike most other oaks, is attached to the tree by a long stem[8]. It matures in its first year[5]. The seed can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread[8]. The seed from some trees can contain bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. Roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Unknown part

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth.

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[9]. The bark has been boiled with hemlock (Tsuga sp.?) and soft maple bark (Acer spp), and the liquid used to remove rust. he mixture was also believed to prevent rust[10].

Wood - close-grained, strong, hard, tough, heavy[11][6][12][13]. It weighs 48lb per cubic foot[5]. Trees do not self-prune and dead branches remain on the trees for many years. This does mean that the wood is usually quite knotty[3]. The wood is of some importance commercially, it is used for construction, furniture, interior finishes etc, as well as for fencing and fuel[11][6][12][13].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[9].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[14]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus bicolor. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[15][14]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[7]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[7].

Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, trees often grow poorly in this country and fail to properly ripen their wood resulting in frost damage overwinter[7]. A relatively fast-growing tree in the wild, living 300 - 350 years[13], though it is relatively shallow-rooted and is considerably more susceptible to forest fires than most other oaks[3]. This species is one of the best of the white oaks for growing in this country[15]. However, it is said that the seed is rarely formed in Britain[1]. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[7][13]. Trees do not commence bearing until about 25 - 30 years old, large crops being produced every 3 - 5 years[13]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[14]. The seed of this species is attached to the tree by unusually long (by oak tree standards) stems[8]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[7].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[7].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus bicolor. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus bicolor.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus bicolor
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus bicolor (USDA).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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"image:Quercus bicolor (USDA).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus bicolor (USDA).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  16. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

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Facts about "Quercus bicolor"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusQuercus +
Has binomial nameQuercus bicolor +
Has common nameSwamp White Oak +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useCoffee + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imageQuercus bicolor (USDA).jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useRepellent +, Rust treatments +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAstringent +
Has primary imageQuercus bicolor (USDA).jpg +
Has search namequercus bicolor + and swamp white oak +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceLoamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameQuercus bicolor +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Quercus bicolor +, Quercus bicolor +, Quercus bicolor +, Quercus bicolor +, Quercus bicolor +, Quercus bicolor + and Quercus bicolor +