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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked[1][2][3][4][5]. Used as a staple food by several native North American Indian tribes[6]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread. The seed, which is up to 4cm long and 2cm wide[7][8], contains bitter tannins - these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth.

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[9]. The seed cups are used as buttons[5].

Wood - coarse grained, hard, very heavy, very brittle. It is not exploited commercially as a wood, though it is valued as a fuel[7][8][6].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[9]. A decoction of the chipped bark has been used as a wash on skin sores[6].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[10]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus agrifolia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[11][10]. Plants are lime tolerant[12]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[13]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[13].

Trees are hardy in Britain if they are not too exposed[11][10], though another report says that they are wind-resistant[14]. Trees grow well in S.W. England[14][15]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[10]. A slow-growing but long-lived tree in the wild[8]. Plants only fruit occasionally in Britain[10], though they fruited very heavily at Kew in the hot summer of 1989[K]. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[13][8]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[13].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[16][13].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus agrifolia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus agrifolia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus agrifolia
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
15 x 8 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus agrifolia foliage.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Coyle. J. and Roberts. N. C. A Field Guide to the Common and Interesting Plants of Baja California. Natural History Publishing Co. (1975-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (1975-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  12. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  15. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
  16. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  17. ? Munz. A California Flora. University of California Press (1959-00-00)

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Facts about "Quercus agrifolia"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusQuercus +
Has binomial nameQuercus agrifolia +
Has common nameEncina +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partSeed +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone8 +
Has imageQuercus agrifolia foliage.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useButtons +, Fuel +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height15 +
Has mature width8 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAstringent + and Skin +
Has primary imageQuercus agrifolia foliage.jpg +
Has search namequercus agrifolia + and encina +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceLoamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameQuercus agrifolia +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia +, Quercus agrifolia + and Quercus agrifolia +