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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - dried, ground then added to flour and used for making bread etc[1]. A famine food, used when all else fails[2].

Inner bark

Material uses

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day[3].

A fast growing tree, it is often used to provide a quick screen or windbreak[4]. The cultivar 'Italica' is commonly used for this purpose though it is not a very suitable choice because it has fragile branches and is prone to basal rots which can cause sudden collapse[4]. The cultivar 'Plantierensis' is much more suitable[4]. A resin obtained from the buds is made into a salve and used in home remedies[5]. The bark is used as a cork substitute for floats etc[6].

Wood - very soft, very light, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, easy to work, very resistant to abrasion. Used for lower quality purposes[7][5][8][6][9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste[10][11]. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body[11]. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, salve, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary[10][12][13][14][15]. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections, stomach and kidney disorders[10][15]. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to aspirin[15]. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain and dry skin conditions[15]. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages[11]. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use[15]. The stem bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic and tonic[16][5][8][17][18]. The bark contains salicylates, from which the proprietary medicine aspirin is derived[15]. It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, lower back pains, urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps[16][5][8][17][11][15]. Externally, the bark is used to treat chilblains, haemorrhoids, infected wounds and sprains[15]. The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use[15].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring[19]. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening[4]. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing[7].

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 20 - 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy.

Suckers in early spring[20]. This species rarely produces suckers[15].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Populus nigra. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil[21]. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain[7][4]. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils[7]. It is fairly wind tolerant, though it does not do well in exposed upland sites, or in maritime exposure[11, K]. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition[4].

A fast-growing tree, reaching maturity in about 100 years and declining thereafter[22]. There are several named varieties that have been selected mainly for their ornamental value[7]. The leaf buds, as they swell in the spring, and the young leaves have a pleasing fragrance of balsam[23]. The fragrance is especially pronounced as the leaves unfold[23]. Very tolerant of hard pruning, the trees have often been pollarded in the past[22]. Plants seldom produce suckers[22]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly[24]. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building's foundations by drying out the soil[7].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Populus nigra. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Populus nigra.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Populus nigra
Genus
Populus
Family
Salicaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Illustration Populus nigra0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Populus nigra0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Illustration Populus nigra0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Populus nigra0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  15. ? 15.0015.0115.0215.0315.0415.0515.0615.0715.0815.0915.10 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
  18. ? 18.018.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  19. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  20. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  21. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.2 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  24. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  25. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Illustration Populus nigra0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Populus nigra"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familySalicaceae +
Belongs to genusPopulus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has binomial namePopulus nigra +
Has common nameBlack Poplar +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partInner bark +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has imageIllustration Populus nigra0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCork +, Rooting hormone + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width20 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAlterative +, Anodyne +, Antiinflammatory +, Astringent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Febrifuge +, Salve +, Stimulant +, Tonic + and Vulnerary +
Has primary imageIllustration Populus nigra0.jpg +
Has search namepopulus nigra + and black poplar +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePopulus nigra +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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