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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark[2]. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[3].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

Tolerant of salt spray, this species makes a good shelterbelt for exposed maritime positions[4][3]. Trees were 9 metres tall after 30 years in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall[4].

Planted to stabilize sand dunes by the coast[5]. A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[6]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[7].

Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[8]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[9][8]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[8]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[8] and is separated by distillation[9][8]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[9]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[9]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[9]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[9]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[9]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[9].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak


Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[10]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[5]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[3]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[3]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[11].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus thunbergii. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[12][5]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[12]. Established plants tolerate drought[3] and maritime exposure[11][13].

The Japanese black pine bears cones whilst still young and produces cones very freely in Britain[14]. The trees thrive in Britain but do not grow very large[12] and are probably not going to be long-lived[14]. Young trees grow about 50cm per year but this soon tails off and older trees average less than 30cm per year[14]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[3]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[3]. This species hybridizes in the wild with P. densiflora[15]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[16].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[3].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus thunbergii. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus thunbergii.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus thunbergii
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
15 x 7 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.79.89.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  10. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  13. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  15. ? Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution (1965-00-00)
  16. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  17. ? Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)


Facts about "Pinus thunbergii"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Functions asWindbreak + and Earth stabiliser +
Has binomial namePinus thunbergii +
Has common nameJapanese Black Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Inner bark +
Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone6 +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Herbicide + and Wood +
Has mature height15 +
Has mature width7 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +
Has search namepinus thunbergii + and japanese black pine +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus thunbergii +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Pinus thunbergii +, Pinus thunbergii +, Pinus thunbergii +, Pinus thunbergii +, Pinus thunbergii + and Pinus thunbergii +