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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6][7]. Rich in oil[8]. Sweet, large and slightly resinous[9][10][11][12], it makes an excellent staple food[K]. The seed is quite large, up to 25mm long and 8mm wide with a thick shell[9][13]. An important food source for local Indians[9]. The seed contains 28% protein and 51% fatty oil[14].

The green cones, roasted for about 20 minutes, are soft and syrupy in their centre[8]. They are much relished by local Indians[11]. Inner bark - raw or cooked[7]. The inner bark can be used fresh or it can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or can be added to cereal flours when making bread etc. An emergency food, it is only used when better foods are not available[7]. A gummy exudation from the tree is chewed[15][14]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[13].

The leaves are used as a tea substitute[8].

Unknown part

Flowers

Inner bark

Seedpod

Material uses

Yields an essential oil called 'Abietine'. It is colourless, with the odour of oranges, and is obtained by distilling the resinous juices[5][9].

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[16]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[17]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[18]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[3][18]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[18]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[18] and is separated by distillation[3][18]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[3]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[3]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The pitch has been used as an adhesive for mending pottery etc[7]. Twigs and rootlets are used as a sewing material for coiled and twined baskets[11][7].

Wood - light, soft, not strong, close grained, brittle[9]. A poor lumber, but it is a good firewood, generating considerable heat when properly seasoned[19].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[3][11]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[3]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[3]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[3].

The yellow pitch-like gum is used as a protective healing covering for burns and sores[14].

The twigs are used in sweat-baths to treat rheumatism[14]. They are laid over hot rocks, the patient lies on them and water is occasionally sprinkled onto the rocks so that steam plus the volatile oil from the pine are constantly given off. The patient remains for 8 - 10 hours, sweating profusely and is said to invariably be able to move without pain afterwards[14].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[20]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[4]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[13]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[13]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[21].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus sabiniana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[2][4]. Succeeds in a heavy clay soil[21]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade[2][4]. Established plants tolerate drought[13].

This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c[13]. The digger pine thrives in Britain[2]. It is fast growing when young with annual height increases of 60cm not uncommon, but the trees are normally short-lived in cultivation[22]. An open, round-topped tree, remarkable for the sparseness of its foliage[9]. The cones are 15 - 25cm long, they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree[9][23]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[13]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[13]. This species is closely related to P. coulteri[4]. The digger pine is cultivated on a small scale for timber in Europe[24]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[25].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[13].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus sabiniana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus sabiniana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus sabiniana
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.103.11 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.79.8 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (1975-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.6 Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. ISBN 0-911010-54-8 (1962-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  13. ? 13.0013.0113.0213.0313.0413.0513.0613.0713.0813.0913.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.6 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  16. ? 16.016.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  19. ? 19.019.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  20. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  22. ? Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  23. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  24. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  25. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  26. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

"image:Pinus sabineana 00058.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus sabiniana"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Has binomial namePinus sabiniana +
Has common nameDigger Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Inner bark +, Seed + and Seedpod +
Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use +, Gum + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone8 +
Has imagePinus sabineana 00058.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useAdhesive +, Basketry +, Dye +, Essential +, Herbicide + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +, Antiseptic +, Diuretic +, Pectoral +, Poultice +, Rubefacient +, Skin +, Vermifuge + and Vulnerary +
Has primary imagePinus sabineana 00058.JPG +
Has search namepinus sabiniana + and digger pine +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus sabiniana +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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