A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin and is separated by distillation. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.Wood - tough and hard. It is light, soft, brittle, close-grained and not strong according to another report. It is widely grown for lumber in warm temperate zones and has been used for flooring, finishings and fuel.
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Trees are somewhat tender when young. Any transplanting is best done when the plant is in active growth in the summer. Only small plants should be moved. Extensively cultivated for timber in warm temperate zones, especially in New Zealand, it grows larger in cultivation than it does in the wild. It is a very vigorous tree in S.W. England where growth takes place almost all year round and annual height increases of 2.5 metres in young plants are not uncommon. Outside the milder areas growth is less vigorous, taking place from June to September. A short-lived tree in the wild, where it rarely lives longer than 100 years. It is probably going to be long-lived in cultivation in Britain. It often self-sows in Britain, though the seedlings are usually found in the shade of the tree and do not flourish there. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. The cones are 8 - 17cm long, they remain closed on the tree for many years, only opening after the heat of a forest fire followed by rain. Plants can produce new shoots from reasonably old wood so the lower branches can be cut back to produce a hedge-like effect. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees.Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
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Polycultures & Guilds
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