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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil, it has a resinous flavour. The seed is about 1cm long[2]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[2].

Unknown part

Material uses

Often planted as a shelterbelt along exposed coasts[3][4][5][6][7] and also to stabilize sandy soils[8][9]. It is very tolerant of maritime exposure, but may require staking when it is young[6].

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[11]. This species is the major source of resin in Europe, it is extensively planted, especially along the Atlantic coast of Europe[8][12][2]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[12]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[13][12]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[12]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[12] and is separated by distillation[13][12]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[13]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[13]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Wood - rough carpentry, boxes, pit props etc. A source of pulp wood[3][14].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[13]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[13]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[13]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[13].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak


Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[15]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[3]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[2]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[2]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[7].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus pinaster. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[16][3]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[16] and shady positions. Established plants tolerate drought[2]. Succeeds in poor dry sandy soils[17]. Tolerates maritime exposure[6], though trees are often laid over from the base by heavy winds when they are young. The stem merely bends back to the vertical and continues growing, the bend remaining in the trunk[17].

The best trees are found in the far south of Britain, where this species often self-sows. It is very fast growing, especially when young with new annual shoots of 1 metre common[17]. It is not very long-lived in cultivation[3][17], though trees have lived longer than 150 years in Britain. Widely cultivated in Europe for the resin obtained from the trunk and for woodpulp, it is the most widely used European species[12][2]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[2]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[2]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the trees[18].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[2].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus pinaster. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus pinaster.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus pinaster
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
20 x 7 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.12 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  5. ? 5.05.1 Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.512.612.7 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.713.813.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  15. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  18. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)

"image:Forêt de la Coubre 027.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus pinaster"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Functions asWindbreak + and Earth stabiliser +
Has binomial namePinus pinaster +
Has common nameMaritime Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +
Has edible useCondiment +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone8 +
Has imageForêt de la Coubre 027.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Herbicide +, Oil +, Resin + and Wood +
Has mature height20 +
Has mature width7 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useMiscellany +
Has primary imageForêt de la Coubre 027.jpg +
Has search namepinus pinaster + and maritime pine +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus pinaster +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Pinus pinaster +, Pinus pinaster +, Pinus pinaster +, Pinus pinaster +, Pinus pinaster +, Pinus pinaster + and Pinus pinaster +