A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin and is separated by distillation. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative, adhesive etc. The roots have been used in making baskets.Wood - heavy, coarse-grained, weak, usually containing a number of knots. Of little value commercially, though it is occasionally manufactured into lumber.
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This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to about -10°c. It grows quickly on barren acidic sandy soils, with annual growths of 1.8 metres being recorded for young trees. Trees from the northern provenances maintain rapid height growth for longer than trees from the southern provenances, but both remain vigorous in girth. Trees grow larger in cultivation than they do in the wild. The cones are about 8cm long, they remain on the tree and retain viable seed for up to 25 years, opening up and scattering the seed after a forest fire. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree.Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
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Polycultures & Guilds
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This table shows all the data stored for this plant.
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