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Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses


Seed - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5]. Oily, with an agreeable almond-like flavour[6][7], they are often used in sweetmeats, pastries, etc. They are the lowest in protein and fats and the highest in starch of the piñons[8][9]. The seeds are an important food source for the local Indians of Nevada and California[3]. A good size, the seed is up to 20mm long[9] and has a thin shell[7].

The pitch obtained from the trunk is allowed to harden and is then used as a chewing gum[5].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[9].

Unknown part

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[11]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[12]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[13][12]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[12]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[12] and is separated by distillation[13][12]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[13]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[13]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The gum (this almost certainly means the resin[K]) is used in waterproofing canoes, baskets, water containers etc, for repairing pottery vessels and in making turquoise mosaic[14]. It is also used as an adhesive for mending pottery[5]. The bark has been used as a roofing material in houses[5].

Wood - light, soft, weak and brittle[3]. Used primarily for fuel and fence posts[7]. It is also made into charcoal and used for smelting[3]. The wood has a high combustibility and burns well[5]. It gives off a pleasant aroma as it burns[5].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Single leaf piñon was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary properties and also for its beneficial effect on the respiratory system[5]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[13]. It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints, and is used both internally and externally to treat rheumatic affections[13][5]. It is also used in treating diseases of the mucous membranes, respiratory complaints, VD, TB, coughs, colds and influenza[13][5]. A decoction is used to rid the body of tapeworms and other internal parasites[5]. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers[13]. A poultice of the melted gum has been applied to cuts and sores[5]. The heated pitch has been applied to the face as a depilatory[5]. The pitch has also been used as a face cream to prevent sunburn[5]. The heated pitch has been used as a poultice to treat sciatic pains and muscular soreness[5]. The cooked pitch has been used by women to stop menstruation and thereby become infertile[5]. It has also been given to adolescent girls to help them keep youthful and live a long life[5].

The gum is used as a plaster on sores and cuts[14].


Ecosystem niche/layer


Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[15]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[16]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[9]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[9]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[17].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus monophylla. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[2][16]. Succeeds in a hot dry position[9]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[2]. Established plants tolerate drought[9].

A slow growing tree in the wild, taking 25 years from sowing until it produces a crop[18]. It then usually produces cones annually, with heavy crops very 2 - 3 years[7]. The tree is long-lived, taking 250 - 350 years to reach maturity[19]. It grows well in southern England[20] and in most of the drier parts of Britain[16]. The cones take 2 summers to mature[7], they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree[21]. Closely related to P. cembroides and considered to be no more than a sub-species of it by some botanists[16]. The main difference is that this species has its leaves singly whilst P. cembroides has them in groups of two or three[9]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[9]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[9]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[22].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[9].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus monophylla. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus monophylla.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Pinus monophylla
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Flower Colour
Flower Type

"Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  3. ? Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  5. ? Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  7. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  12. ? Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  13. ? Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  14. ? Whiting. A. F. Ethnobotany of the Hopi North Arizona Society of Science and Art (1939-00-00)
  15. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  16. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  17. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  18. ? Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. ISBN 0802707699 (1984-00-00)
  19. ? Pesman. M. W. Meet Flora Mexicana. Dale S. King. Arizona. (1962-00-00)
  20. ? ? The Plantsman. Vol. 2. 1980 - 1981. Royal Horticultural Society (1980-00-00)
  21. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  22. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)

"Single Leaf Pi?on" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus monophylla"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Has binomial namePinus monophylla +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useAdhesive +, Dye +, Fuel +, Herbicide +, Pitch +, Roofing + and Wood +
Has mature height10 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Contraceptive +, Diuretic +, Laxative +, Plaster +, Poultice +, Salve +, Skin + and Vermifuge +
Has search namepinus monophylla + and single leaf pi�on +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus monophylla +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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