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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6]. The oil-rich seed has a delicious flavour with a hint of resin[K]. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used in making bread, biscuits, as a thickener in soups etc[7]. A reasonable size, the seed is up to 11mm x 9mm[8], with a thick shell[9].

Inner bark[3][4]. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[8].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[11]. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[8]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[12]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[13][12]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[12]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[12] and is separated by distillation[13][12]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[13]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[13]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Wood - light, soft, close-grained. It is occasionally made into lumber and is also used for general carpentry[14][15][9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[13]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[13]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[13]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[13].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[16]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[17]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[8]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[8]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus flexilis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[19][17]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[19]. Established plants tolerate drought[8]. A fairly wind-resistant species[8], the plants often colonise exposed mountain slopes in the wild, their deep taproot anchoring them firmly[7][20].

A very cold-tolerant plant when fully dormant[21]. A long-lived but slow-growing tree in the wild[20]. Growth in Britain can be fairly fast, over 30cm a year has been recorded[22]. It is slow to get started but then grows away quite well[21]. It only makes a small tree in cultivation[18]. Seed production in the wild consists of a cycle of one good year followed by several years of low crops[20]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby inhibiting the growth of other plants below the tree[23]. The branches are very flexible[21]. The cones are 7 - 25cm long, they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree[9][7]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[8]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[8]. This species is closely allied to P. albicaulis[17], differing mainly in the cones[7].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[8].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus flexilis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus flexilis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus flexilis
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  5. ? 5.05.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.108.118.12 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.713.813.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  16. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.2 ? The Plantsman. Vol. 2. 1980 - 1981. Royal Horticultural Society (1980-00-00)
  22. ? Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  23. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  24. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)

"image:Pinus flexilis male cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus flexilis"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has binomial namePinus flexilis +
Has common nameLimber Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Inner bark + and Seed +
Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imagePinus flexilis male cones.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Herbicide + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Diuretic +, Rubefacient + and Vermifuge +
Has primary imagePinus flexilis male cones.jpg +
Has search namepinus flexilis + and limber pine +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus flexilis +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis +, Pinus flexilis + and Pinus flexilis +