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Uses

Toxic parts

The sawdust, the resin from the trunk and even the needles can cause dermatitis in some people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young shoots. An emergency food, used when all else fails[2].

Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring[3]. Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy[3]. The cones are 3 - 5cm in diameter[4]. Inner bark - dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread[3]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. Seed - raw[3]. The seed is about 2 - 4mm long[5] and is too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate[3]. A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips[3][6].

A gum is exuded from the tree as a result of injury to the sapwood. It is used for chewing[7][8][9].

Flowers

Unknown part

Inner bark

Leaves

Material uses

The bark has been used to make baskets[6].

Pitch can be obtained from the trunk[6]. The roots have been used to make thread for sewing baskets, canoe skins etc[6].

Wood - straight-grained, soft, light, not strong[7][8][9][5]. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot[10]. Used for boxes, sash frames etc. It is also valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper[7][8][9][5] and is commonly used to produce stringed musical instruments[5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A tea made from the boughs has been used in the treatment of colds and to 'break out' measles[1][6].

The pitch from the trunk has been used as a poultice on rheumatic joints, the chest and the stomach in order to relieve congestion and pain[1].

A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of lung complaints and throat problems[6].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible[11]. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame[12]. A position in light shade is probably best[12]. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place[11]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.

Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring[12]. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months[12].

Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Picea rubens. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil[13]. Tolerates poor peaty soils[14]. Succeeds in wet cold and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils[15]. Resists wind exposure to some degree[14]. A shallow-rooted tree, in the wild it is often blown down by strong winds[5]. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6[14]. Dislikes shade[14]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[13].

This species has been planted experimentally as a timber crop in N. Europe[16]. It is slow to get started, but can then grow fairly rapidly when established though it soon slows down and seems to be fairly short-lived in cultivation, around 100 years is probably the limit[17]. Wild trees live about 300 - 400 years[5]. In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain[14]. Seed production commences when the tree is about 15 years old, though reliable crops are not produced for another 5 - 10 years[5]. Heavy crops occur every 4 - 6 years[5]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[14]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[14]. Closely related to and hybridizes in the wild with P. mariana[5]. It is believed by some botanists to be a hybrid between P. mariana and P. glauca[18]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[14].

The crushed leaves are redolent of apples or camphor[17].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Picea rubens. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Picea rubens.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Picea rubens
Genus
Picea
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Picea rubens cone.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Picea rubens cone.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Picea rubens cone.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Picea rubens cone.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  4. ? 4.04.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  5. ? 5.005.015.025.035.045.055.065.075.085.095.10 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.8 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  15. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  16. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  18. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  19. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-43

"image:Picea rubens cone.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Picea rubens"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPicea +
Has binomial namePicea rubens +
Has common nameRed Spruce +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partFlowers +, Unknown part +, Inner bark +, Leaves + and Seed +
Has edible useUnknown use +, Gum + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imagePicea rubens cone.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Fibre +, Pitch + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal usePectoral + and Poultice +
Has primary imagePicea rubens cone.jpg +
Has search namepicea rubens + and red spruce +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePicea rubens +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens +, Picea rubens + and Picea rubens +