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Edible uses


Fruit - raw[1][2][3]. Sweet but usually insipid[4][5]. It contains about 1.5% protein, 0.4% fat, 7.8% carbohydrate, 0.7% malic acid[6]. A richer flavour develops if the fruit is dried, it can then be used as a raisin substitute. The fruit is up to 25mm long[7]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Young leaves and shoots - cooked[8][9]. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails[10]. A good vegetable, it is rich in carotene and calcium[6]. The leaf also contains 10% tannin[6]. Inner bark - roasted and ground into a meal then used as a thickener in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread. A famine food when all else fails[6]. The tree is said to be a source of an edible manna[9].

Young shoots can be used as a tea substitute[9].


Inner bark


Material uses

A fibre is obtained from the bark of one-year old stems, it is used in weaving[2][11].

A brown dye is obtained from the trunk[12]. The leaves contain 10% tannin[6].

Wood - hard, durable, fine and close-grained. Used for boat building, furniture etc[13][14][3].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The white mulberry has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, almost all parts of the plant are used in one way or another[15]. Recent research has shown improvements in elephantiasis when treated with leaf extract injections and in tetanus following oral doses of the sap mixed with sugar[15].

Analgesic, emollient, sedative[2][16]. The leaves are antibacterial, astringent, diaphoretic, hypoglycaemic, odontalgic and ophthalmic[17][15]. They are taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, eye infections and nosebleeds[15]. The leaves are collected after the first frosts of autumn and can be used fresh but are generally dried[15]. The stems are antirheumatic, diuretic, hypotensive and pectoral[17][15]. A tincture of the bark is used to relieve toothache[2]. The branches are harvested in late spring or early summer and are dried for later use[15]. The fruit has a tonic effect on kidney energy[17][15]. It is used in the treatment of urinary incontinence, tinnitus, premature greying of the hair and constipation in the elderly[15]. The root bark is antitussive, diuretic, expectorant and hypotensive[15]. It is used internally in the treatment of asthma, coughs, bronchitis, oedema, hypertension and diabetes[15]. The roots are harvested in the winter and dried for later use[15].

Extracts of the plant have antibacterial and fungicidal activity[17].


Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


The seed germinates best if given 2 - 3 months cold stratification[18][19]. Sow the seed as soon as it is ripe if possible, otherwise in February in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in the first spring, though it sometimes takes another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Plant out in spring. A good percentage take, though they sometimes fail to thrive[20][21]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 25 - 30cm with a heel of 2 year old wood, autumn or early spring in a cold frame or a shady bed outside[20][21][7]. Bury the cuttings to threequarters of their depth.

Layering in autumn[7].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Morus alba multicaulis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Prefers a warm well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[22][5].

This variety of M. alba is said to have superior fruits[8]. According to many botanists it is no more than a clone of the species[7]. This is the form most commonly cultivated in India, where it is fast growing and adapted to field culture. It gives a high yield of large, tender, thick leaves[23]. Mulberries have brittle roots and so need to be handled with care when planting them out[15]. Any pruning should only be carried out in the winter when the plant is fully dormant because mulberries bleed badly when cut[15]. Ideally prune only badly placed branches and dead wood[15]. A good tree for growing grapes into[24]. The grapes are difficult to pick but always seem to be healthier and free from fungal diseases[25].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[7].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Morus alba multicaulis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Morus alba multicaulis.




None listed.


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Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Morus alba multicaulis
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Flower Colour
    Flower Type


    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
    5. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    6. ? Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    7. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    8. ? Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    9. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    13. ? 13.013.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    15. ? 15.0015.0115.0215.0315.0415.0515.0615.0715.0815.0915.1015.1115.1215.1315.1415.15 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    17. ? Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    18. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    19. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
    20. ? 20.020.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    22. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    23. ? Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
    24. ? Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    25. ? Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    26. ? [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)