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Uses

Toxic parts

All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2]. Used for jellies, preserves and juices[3]. The flavour improves considerably if the fruit is not harvested until it has been frosted[4]. The fruit is quite variable in size (it is about 2 - 4cm in diameter[5]) and quality. Whilst usually harsh and acid, some forms are quite sweet and can be eaten out of hand[K].

The fruit is rich in pectin and can be used in helping other fruits to set when making jam etc[6][7]. Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation[8]. An edible oil can be obtained from the seed[9]. It would only really be viable to use these seeds as an oil source if the fruit was being used for some purpose such as making cider and then the seeds could be extracted from the remaining pulp[K].

A very pleasant tea can be made from the leaves[10].

Fruit

Unknown part

Material uses

The fruit is a source of pectin[6][7]. Pectin is used as a thickener in jams etc and as a culture medium in laboratories.

A red to yellow dye is obtained from the bark[11].

The wood is an excellent fuel[12].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The fruit is astringent and laxative[9][1]. The crushed fruit pulp can be used as a poultice to heal inflammations or small flesh wounds[10]. The fruit is eaten to obviate constipation[13].

The bark, and especially the root bark, is anthelmintic, refrigerant and soporific[14][13]. An infusion is used in the treatment of intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers[9][13].

The leaves contain up to 2.4% of an antibacterial substance called 'florin'[13]. This inhibits the growth of a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in as low a concentration as 30 ppm[13].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It usually germinates in late winter. Stored seed requires stratification for 3 months at 1°c and should be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is received[5]. It might not germinate for 12 months or more. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. If given a rich compost they usually grow away quickly and can be large enough to plant out in late summer, though consider giving them some protection from the cold in their first winter. Otherwise, keep them in pots in a cold frame and plant them out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of mature wood, November in a frame[15].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Malus sylvestris. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most fertile soils, including heavy ones, preferring a moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil[16][17][5]. Prefers a sunny position but succeeds in partial shade though it fruits less well in such a situation[18][5].

Fairly tolerant of cutting, it succeeds in a mixed hedgerow[18]. A parent of the cultivated apple[15], it is often used as a rootstock[19]. The fruit is a good wildlife food source, especially for birds[5]. The plant has over 90 associated insect species[20]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[5].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[5].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Malus sylvestris. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Malus sylvestris.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Malus sylvestris
Genus
Malus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Malus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Malus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Malus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Malus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing ISBN 0-273-00098-5 (1976-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press ISBN 0-12-136450-x (1975-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Ahrendt. Berberis and Mahonia. Journal of the Linnean Society, 57 (1961-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    16. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    17. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
    18. ? 18.018.1 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
    19. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    20. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
    21. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

    "image:Malus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Malus sylvestris"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyRosaceae +
    Belongs to genusMalus +
    Has binomial nameMalus sylvestris +
    Has common nameCrab Apple +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit + and Unknown part +
    Has edible useUnknown use +, Oil +, Pectin + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageMalus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye +, Fuel + and Pectin +
    Has mature height10 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnthelmintic +, Antibacterial +, Astringent +, Hypnotic +, Laxative + and Refrigerant +
    Has primary imageMalus sylvestris (inflorescence).jpg +
    Has search namemalus sylvestris + and crab apple +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameMalus sylvestris +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris +, Malus sylvestris + and Malus sylvestris +