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Uses

Toxic parts

The milky sap can cause dermatitis in some people[1]. An extract and the juice of the fruit is toxic, though a 10% aqueous infusion and extract diluted 1:1 are not toxic[2].

Edible uses

Notes

One report suggests that the fruit is edible[3] but this is surely a mistake - although very large, the fruit is harsh, hard, dry and astringent. The fruit does, however, contain an anti-oxidant which can be used as a food preservative, especially for oils[4]. The heartwood and the root yield a non-toxic antibiotic that is useful as a food preservative[2].
There are no edible uses listed for Maclura pomifera.

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the bark of the root and the wood[5][6][7][8][9][10]. Green and orange can also be obtained from it[11].

The sap of the fruit is used as an insect repellent[7]. It is said to be effective against cockroaches[12]. The bark is a source of tannin[13][8]. The plant is often grown as a hedge in N. America and Europe[14][15][16], it is very tolerant of severe pruning[1], makes an effective stock-proof barrier[1] and succeeds in maritime exposure[K]. A hedge in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall has grown well (1989), though it is very bare in winter[K]. This species is also used in shelterbelt plantings[1].

Wood - coarse-grained, exceedingly hard, heavy, flexible, very strong, very durable, silky, lustrous. It weighs 48lb per cubic foot. One of the most durable woods in N. America, it is seldom used commercially, but is used locally for fence posts,piers, bows etc and makes an excellent fuel[5][13][7][17][1][18][19][20].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A tea made from the roots has been used as a wash for sore eyes[12][10]. The inedible fruits contain antioxidant and fungicidal compounds[12]. A 10% aqueous infusion and an extract diluted 1:1 have cardiovascular potentialities[2].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in pots in a cold frame. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in warm water and stratify for 2 months at 4°c then sow in a cold frame[21][1]. Germination is normally good. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seed stores for 3 years[21].

If growing larger quantities of plants, it is probably best to sow the seed in an open seed bed[1]. Grow the plants on for a couple of years in the seed bed before planting them out into their permanent positions. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[1]. Cuttings of mature wood, November to January in a frame[21]. Layering in summer[1].

Root cuttings 4cm long in December. Plant horizontally in pots in a greenhouse and plant out as soon as possible. Good percentage[22].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Maclura pomifera. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a well-drained soil in full sun[1]. Succeeds in poor soils and also in dry ones[15]. Plants are fairly tolerant of maritime exposure[K]. They dislike waterlogged soils[23].

Dormant mature plants are hardy to about -20°c though the young growth in spring can be cut back by late frosts[1] and young plants can be damaged in cold winters[23]. Plants require hot summers to fully ripen their wood if they are to thrive in areas with cold winters[23]. Plants are tolerant of severe pruning[1]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[1].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Maclura pomifera. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Maclura pomifera.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Maclura pomifera
Genus
Maclura
Family
Moraceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.121.131.14 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.2 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  22. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.123.2 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  24. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-11
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