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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - eaten raw or ground into a powder and used with cereal flours in making cakes, biscuits, muffins, bread etc[1]. Oily and sweet tasting with a rich agreeable flavour[11, 62, 63. 101, 183]. The oil in the seed is not very stable and the seed soon becomes rancid once it is opened[2]. The kernel is usually only about 20% by weight of the whole seed[3] and is hard to extract[4]. The unripe fruit can be pickled[1]. The seed is 3 - 6cm in diameter and is produced in clusters of 3 - 5 fruits[2][5].

An edible oil is obtained from the seed[6][7][1], it tends to go rancid quickly.

The sweet sap is tapped in spring and can be used as a refreshing drink[6]. It can also be boiled down to a syrup or sugar, or added to maple syrup[2][6][7][8][1].

Unknown part

Material uses

A yellow to orange dye is obtained from the seed husks[9][10][2] and from the bark[11]. It is dark brown[12][6]. It does not require a mordant[13]. The seed husks can be dried and stored for later use[13].

A light brown dye is obtained from the young twigs, leaves, buds and unripe fruit[7][13][14]. It does not require a mordant[13]. The leaves can also be dried and stored for later use[13]. A black dye is obtained from the young roots[15]. Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree[16][17][8]. The roots of this species produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.)[18][19].

Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, very attractive[9][10][2][7]. It weighs 25lb per cubic foot[20]. It is not as valuable a crop as the black walnut (J. nigra), but is used indoors for furniture, doors etc[5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Butternut was used by various native North American Indian tribes as a laxative and tonic remedy to treat a variety of conditions including rheumatic and arthritic joints, headaches, dysentery, constipation and wounds[21]. In modern herbalism it is considered to be a valuable remedy for chronic constipation, gently encouraging regular bowel movements. It is especially beneficial when combined with a carminative herb such as Angelica archangelica[21]. Butternut also lowers cholesterol levels and promotes the clearance of waste products by the liver[21].

An infusion of the inner-bark is used as a cholagogue, febrifuge, mild laxative and stomachic[22][9][10][2][8][23][14][24]. It is effective in small doses without causing cramps[24]. The bark is best collected in the autumn[14]. Best collected in late spring according to another report[22]. An infusion of the dried outer bark is used in the treatment of toothache and dysentery[4].

The oil from the nuts is used in the treatment of tapeworms and fungal infections[22][24].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame[25]. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two. The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate[26][25].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Juglans cinerea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a deep well-drained loam and a position sheltered from strong winds[27][28]. Prefers a slightly alkaline soil[18]. Prefers a sandy soil with a pH around 6 to 7[3]. Dislikes compacted soils or clay sub-soils, otherwise trees grow well on most soils[3].

This is the most cold-resistant of the walnuts[7], tolerating temperatures down to about -35°c in N. America when fully dormant[3]. It is less hardy in Britain, unfortunately, because the wood does not ripen so well here due to our cooler summers. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts[18]. Sometimes cultivated in N. America for its edible seed, there are some named varieties[29][7][1]. Trees can come into bearing in 6 - 10 years from seed and fruiting is usually biennial[3]. The trees are quite short-lived, seldom exceeding 80 - 90 years[5]. They require about 105 frost-free days in order to ripen a crop in N. America[3]. Unfortunately, they have not proved successful as a nut tree in Britain, usually failing to produce a crop[28]. This is probably due to our cooler summers[28]. It is sometimes planted as a timber tree in Denmark and Rumania[30]. Plants produce a deep taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and given some protection for their first few winters since they are somewhat tender when young[27][28]. Trees cast a dense shade which reduces the amount of species able to grow below them[19]. We have no specific information for this species, but the roots of several members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.)[18]. The leaves of many species also secrete substances that have an inhibitory affect on plants growing underneath them. All in all this is not a very good companion plant[K]. Plants should only be pruned when they are fully dormant in winter or when they are in full leaf, otherwise any cuts will bleed profusely[18].

Hybridizes with J. ailantifolia, there are some named varieties of this hybrid that are grown for their edible seed[3].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Juglans cinerea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Juglans cinerea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Juglans cinerea
Genus
Juglans
Family
Juglandaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Juglans cinerea.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Juglans cinerea.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.8 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.7 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. ISBN 0802707699 (1984-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    12. ? 12.012.1 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.122.222.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    24. ? 24.024.124.224.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    26. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    27. ? 27.027.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    28. ? 28.028.128.228.328.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    29. ? Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
    30. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    31. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Juglans cinerea.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Juglans cinerea"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyJuglandaceae +
    Belongs to genusJuglans +
    Has binomial nameJuglans cinerea +
    Has common nameButternut +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Sap + and Seed +
    Has edible useOil +, Unknown use + and Sweetener +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Wind +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageJuglans cinerea.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye +, Herbicide + and Wood +
    Has mature height25 +
    Has mature width20 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAstringent +, Cholagogue +, Febrifuge +, Laxative +, Odontalgic + and Stomachic +
    Has primary imageJuglans cinerea.jpg +
    Has search namejuglans cinerea + and butternut +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameJuglans cinerea +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea +, Juglans cinerea + and Juglans cinerea +