This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Toxic parts

Although no specific reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, the fruits of at least some members of this genus contain saponins and are slightly toxic. They can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and stupor if eaten in quantity[1]. The fruits can cause violent vomiting[2].

Edible uses

Notes

The roasted leaves are used as a tea substitute[3][4]. They do not contain caffeine[5]. The drink was a very popular tea substitute during the American Civil war[5].

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

A number of cultivars of this species are used for hedging[6]. Fairly wind-resistant, this species is also used in shelterbelt plantings[6].

A dye has been made from the berries - the colour is not given[7].

Wood - light, tough, not strong, close grained, highly shock resistant, easily worked[8][9][10][11]. A strikingly white wood, it is valued for use in veneers and inlay[1]. It weighs 36lb per cubic foot[12]. Too small for commercial exploitation, but it is valued for use in cabinet making and the interior finishes of houses[8], it is also used for making small items such as tool handles[9][10][11]. The wood can also be stained to imitate ebony[10].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The berries are laxative, emetic and diuretic[2]. They are used in the treatment of children's diarrhoea, colic and indigestion[2].

A tea made from the leaves has been used as a treatment for measles, colds etc[2][7]. The leaves have also been used externally in the treatment of sore eyes, sore and itchy skin[2][7].

A tea made from the bark was once used in the treatment of malaria and epilepsy[2]. It has also been used as a wash for sore eyes and itchy skin[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can take 18 months to germinate. Stored seed generally requires two winters and a summer before it will germinate and should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame. Scarification, followed by a warm stratification and then a cold stratification may speed up the germination time[13][14]. The seedlings are rather slow-growing. Pot them up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame for their first year. It is possible to plant them out into a nursery bed in late spring of the following year, but they should not be left here for more than two years since they do not like being transplanted. Alternatively, grow them on in their pots for a second season and then plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Give them a good mulch and some protection for their first winter outdoors.

Cuttings of almost ripe wood with a heel, August in a shaded position in a cold frame. Leave for 12 months before potting up.

Layering in October. Takes 2 years.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ilex opaca. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils so long as they are not water-logged. Fairly wind-resistant[6].

Plants are hardy to about -25°c[15]. A slow-growing and long-lived species in the wild[11], but it does not thrive or fruit well in British gardens[16]. Plants do not thrive in a maritime climate[17]. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value[16][6]. The leaves remain on the plant for about 3 years, falling in the spring[8]. Flowers are produced on the current year's growth[11]. Resents root disturbance, especially as the plants get older[18]. It is best to place the plants into their permanent positions as soon as possible, perhaps giving some winter protection for their first year or two[K]. Plants are very tolerant of pruning and can be cut right back into old wood if required[17].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Ilex opaca. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Ilex opaca.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Ilex opaca
Genus
Ilex
Family
Aquifoliaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.6 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  4. ? 4.04.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
  13. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  14. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  15. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  19. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)


Facts about "Ilex opaca"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyAquifoliaceae +
Belongs to genusIlex +
Functions asHedge + and Windbreak +
Has binomial nameIlex opaca +
Has common nameAmerican Holly +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +
Has edible useTea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bees +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye + and Wood +
Has mature height15 +
Has mature width1.5 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiperiodic +, Diuretic +, Emetic +, Laxative +, Ophthalmic + and Skin +
Has search nameilex opaca + and american holly +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameIlex opaca +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca +, Ilex opaca + and Ilex opaca +