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Uses

Toxic parts

Large quantities of the raw seed may be toxic[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves - raw or cooked as a potherb[2]. A very nice mild flavour but the leaves quickly become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in mid-summer.

Seed - raw or cooked. Small but very sweet and nutritious[3][4][5][2][6], it is sold in local markets in Canada and some parts of America[3]. Rich in oil, the seed also contains up to 22% protein[7]. The raw seed should not be eaten in large quantities since it is believed to cause enteritis[1][8]. It can be dried and ground into a powder, then used with cereal flours in making bread, cakes etc[2]. The germinating seeds can be eaten raw, they are tender, crisp, sweet and nutty[2]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2][7]. An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[9][2].

Inner bark[9]. Dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[7].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Leaves

Material uses

The oil obtained from the seed has been used as a fuel in oil lamps[8]. Wood - strong, hard, heavy, very close grained, not durable, difficult to cure[10][3][6]. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot[6]. Harvested commercially, it is used for furniture, flooring, tool handles, crates etc[6]. It makes an excellent charcoal and is used in artwork[10][6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A decoction of the boiled leaves has been used as a wash and poultice to treat frostbite, burns, poison ivy rash etc[7][11][12].

The nuts have been eaten as a vermifuge[11][12].

A tea made from the bark has been used in the treatment of lung ailments[11][12]. It has also been used to procure an abortion when the mother was suffering[12].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice. Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given some protection from spring frosts.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Fagus grandifolia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives on a light or medium soil[13], doing well on chalk[14], but ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[14].

Young trees are very shade tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a woodland position which will protect them[15]. Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is very slow growing[15]. The seeds are dispersed after the first frosts[6], they are sometimes gathered and sold in local markets in N. America[3][6]. Good crops are produced every 2 - 3 years in the wild[6]. This species produces suckers[13] and often forms thickets in the wild[6].

Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade, this greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is often almost devoid of vegetation[8][6].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Fagus grandifolia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Fagus grandifolia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Fagus grandifolia
Genus
Fagus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Fagus grandifolia.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.6 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. ISBN 0802707699 (1984-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    6. ? 6.006.016.026.036.046.056.066.076.086.096.106.11 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    16. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

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