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Toxic parts

Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[1]. In large doses, oil of eucalyptus, like so many essential oils has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation[1]. Death is reported from ingestion of 4 - 24 ml of essential oils, but recoveries are also reported for the same amount[1]. Symptoms include gastroenteric burning and irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, oxygen deficiency, ,weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult respiration, delirium, paralysis, convulsions, and death, usually due to respiratory failure[1].

Edible uses


Seed[2]. No further details are given but the seed is very small, not much bigger than a speck of dust[K].

Material uses

A gum is obtained from the plant. It is used medicinally and in tanning[3][4].

The leaves contain 0.1 - 0.4% essential oil, 77% of which is cineol There is some cuminal, phellandrene, aromadendren (or aromadendral), and some valerylaldehyde, geraniol, cymene, and phellandral[1]. The leaves contain 5 - 11% tannin. The kino contains 45% kinotannic acid as well as kino red, a glycoside, catechol, and pyrocatechol[1]. The leaves and fruits test positive for flavonoids and sterols[1]. The bark contains 2.5 - 16% tannin, the wood 2 - 14%, and the kino 46.2 - 76.7%[1]. A fast growing tree with wide-ranging roots, it can be planted in soil stabilization schemes and can also be planted in marshy land where it will help in draining the land, thereby destroying a potential breeding site for mosquitoes[5]. It is planted in S. Italy for this purpose.

The wood, durable, easy to saw, yet resistant to termites, is widely used in Australia for strong durable construction, interior finish, flooring, cabinetry, furniture, fence posts, cross-ties, sometimes pulpwood[1]. Australian aborigines made canoes from the bark[1]. According to NAS (1980a), annual wood yields are around 20 - 25 m3/ha in Argentina, 30 m3 from Israel, 17 - 20 from Turkey in the first rotation, and 25 - 30 in subsequent coppice rotations[1]. On poor arid sites yields are only 2 - 11 m3 on 14 or 15 year rotations[1].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Eucalyptus leaves are a traditional Aboriginal herbal remedy. The essential oil found in the leaves is a powerful antiseptic and is used all over the world for relieving coughs and colds, sore throats and other infections[6]. The essential oil is a common ingredient in many over-the-counter cold remedies[6].

The plant is an aromatic, astringent, tonic herb that sticks to the teeth and turns the saliva red[7]. The report says that the leaves, essential oil and oleo-resin are used[7], but does not specify which properties apply to the different parts of the plant[K]. The leaves and the oil will have very similar properties, the oil being much stronger in its effect since it is distilled from the leaves[K]. Detailed below is how the oleo-resin and oil are commonly used in other species[K].

The essential oil obtained from various species of eucalyptus is a very powerful antiseptic, especially when it is old, because ozone is formed in it on exposure to air. It has a decided disinfectant action, destroying the lower forms of life[8]. The oil can be used externally, applied to cuts, skin infections etc, it can also be inhaled for treating blocked nasal passages, it can be gargled for sore throat and can also be taken internally for a wide range of complaints[8]. Some caution is advised, however, because like all essential oils, it can have a deleterious effect on the body in larger doses[8]. An oleo- resin is exuded from the tree[7]. It can also be obtained from the tree by making incisions in the trunk[8][9]. This resin contains tannin and is powerfully astringent, it is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and bladder inflammation[8][9][7], externally it is applied to cuts etc[8][9].

Treats throat ailments[3].

Unknown part


Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Earth stabiliser


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Seed - surface sow February/March in a sunny position in a greenhouse[10][11][12]. Species that come from high altitudes appreciate 6 - 8 weeks cold stratification at 2°c[13]. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as the second set of seed leaves has developed, if left longer than this they might not move well. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and give them some protection from the cold in their first winter. The seed can also be sown in June, the young trees being planted in their final positions in late spring of the following year. The seed has a long viability[13].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Prefers a sunny position in a moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive circum-neutral soil[13]. Succeeds in most soils[14], tolerating poor and dry soils, especially those low in mineral elements[13]. A drought resistant tree once established[15][13], it is slightly salt tolerant[15], and can also withstand periodic inundation[15]. A very fast growing tree[15]. Plants tolerate an annual precipitation of 103 to 206cm and an annual temperature range of 18.0 to 26.6°C[1]. It is reported to grow in areas with only 20cm rainfall, but the lower limit for commercial plantations is 40cm. Some provenances tolerate many different soil conditions such as high calcium, high salt and periodic water-logging[1].The mean maximum temperature of the warmest month where it grows well is ca 29°C. The dry season lasts 4 - 8 months or more and may be severe[1].

Fairly frost resistant, plants survive temperatures down to at least -7°c in Australian gardens[15][16]. This figure is not directly relatable to British gardens, however, because of our cooler summers and colder, wetter winters. It could be worthwhile giving this species a try in the milder areas of the country[K]. Some Provenances can tolerate temperatures down to about -5°C and up to 20 frosts per year[1]. Eucalyptus species have not adopted a deciduous habit and continue to grow until it is too cold for them to do so. This makes them more susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. A deep mulch around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees to survive cold conditions[13]. The members of this genus are remarkably adaptable however, there can be a dramatic increase in the hardiness of subsequent generations from the seed of survivors growing in temperate zones[13]. Trees are liable to shed branches, especially in hot weather[14]. This is said to be the most widely distributed eucalyptus tree in Australia, ranging over 23° lat. in most of arid and semiarid Australia but not the humid eastern and south-western coasts. It is regarded as one of the most widely planted eucalypts in the world with more than 500,000 ha planted[1]. It is planted in Europe, especially in Italy, as a timber crop, for soil stabilization and as an anti-malarial measure[5]. Some provenances coppice well for six or more rotations, on good sites, plantations are managed on coppice rotations of 7 - 10 years[1]. Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[13]. Plants are shallow-rooting and, especially in windy areas, should be planted out into their permanent positions when small to ensure that they do not suffer from wind-rock[17]. They strongly resent root disturbance and should be container grown before planting out into their permanent position[10]. Survivalists in Australia and elsewhere might learn how the aborigines obtained water from the superficial roots, usually those ca 3 cm in diameter. The roots were excavated or lifted to the soil surface. Then the root was cut into segments ca 45 cm long, debarked, held vertically, and blown into, the water then draining into the receptacle provided[1].

The flowers are rich in nectar and are a good bee crop[13].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Eucalyptus camaldulensis.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
  • Drought
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Flower Colour
Flower Type

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"image:700 yr red river gum02.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:700 yr red river gum02.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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  1. ? Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana ISBN 0-00-634436-4 (1976-00-00)
  3. ? Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Useful Wild Plants in Australia. William Collins Pty Ltd. Sidney ISBN 0-00-216441-8 (1981-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  5. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  6. ? Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  7. ? Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  8. ? Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? Lassak. E. V. and McCarthy. T. Australian Medicinal Plants. ()
  10. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  11. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  12. ? Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (1988-00-00)
  13. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Holliday. I. and Hill. R. A Field Guide to Australian Trees. Frederick Muller Ltd. ISBN 0-85179-627-3 (1974-00-00)
  15. ? Kelly. S. Eucalypts. (2 volumes.) Nelson, Melbourne (1969-00-00)
  16. ? Wrigley. J. W. and Fagg. M. Australian Native Plants. Collins. (Australia) ISBN 0-7322-0021-0 (1988-00-00)
  17. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)

"image:700 yr red river gum02.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Eucalyptus camaldulensis"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyMyrtaceae +
Belongs to genusEucalyptus +
Functions asEarth stabiliser +
Has common nameRed River Gum +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partSeeds +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceDrought + and Salinity +
Has fertility typeBee +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone9 +
Has image700 yr red river gum02.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useGum + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width20 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic + and Astringent +
Has primary image700 yr red river gum02.jpg +
Has salinity toleranceTolerant +
Has search nameeucalyptus camaldulensis + and x +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameEucalyptus camaldulensis +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy + and Secondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +