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Botanical description

These plants are deciduous shrubs or small trees growing 3.5 m tall, with a dense, thorny crown. The leaves are alternate, 4?10 cm long and 2?4 cm wide, entire but with a wavy margin. The leaves are silvery when they leaf out early in spring due to numerous tiny scales, but turn greener above as the scales wear off through the summer (unlike the related E. angustifolia, which remains silvery to leaf fall). The flowers are clustered 1-7 together in the leaf axils, fragrant, with a four-lobed pale yellowish-white 1 cm long corolla. The fruit is a round drupe 1/4 to 1/3 inches (0.65 to 0.85 cm) long, silvery-scaled yellow, ripening to red dotted with silver or brown[9].

Uses

Toxic parts

None known

Edible uses

Fruit

Seed

Material uses

Wood

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant[10].

The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs[10]. The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections[10].

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[11].

Fruit

Seed

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy, Secondary canopy or Shrub

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Windbreak


Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Bumble Bee

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Layering in September/October [Britain]. Takes 12 months[12].

Seed

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[12]. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[13]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well[12]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall.

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage[12]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage[12].


Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained[14][7], though it dislikes shallow chalk soils[13]. It prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in very poor soils and in dry soils[14][7]. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position[14]. Established plants are very drought resistant[15].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -40°c[7]. This species is somewhat similar to E. multiflora, but it flowers a few weeks later[16]. Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties[5]. 'Cardinal' and 'Red Wing' are very good fruiting forms (developed for ornament and not for fruit quality)[16]. 'Jazbo' has been bred for its edible fruits which are said to be ripe when 'they drop into your hand'[11]. This makes them valuable in breeding programmes to develop easily harvested fruits[11]. Flowers are rich in nectar and very aromatic, they are much visited by bees. Polymorphic[14][17]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[18][7]. Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed[4].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[4][7]. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Elaeagnus umbellata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Elaeagnus umbellata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Elaeagnus umbellata
Genus
Elaeagnus
Family
Elaeagnaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
  • Nutritionally poor soil
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
4.5 x 4
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
white
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Parmar. C. and Kaushal. M.K. Wild Fruits of the Sub-Himalayan Region. Kalyani Publishers. New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (32202/01/01)
  9. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wikipedia
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Matthews. V. The New Plantsman. Volume 1, 1994. Royal Horticultural Society ISBN 1352-4186 (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  15. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? www.foj.info Flora of Japan ()
  18. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (32202/01/01)
  19. ? Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (32202/01/01)
  20. ? Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution (32202/01/01)

Cite error: <ref> tag with name "pfaf" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.


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Facts about "Elaeagnus umbellata"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupNo +
Belongs to familyElaeagnaceae +
Belongs to genusElaeagnus +
Can be grown from cutting typeHard wood + and Semi-ripe +
Functions asHedge +, Windbreak + and Nitrogen fixer +
Has common nameAutumn Olive +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit + and Seeds +
Has edible useFresh +, Cooked + and Jam +
Has environmental toleranceNutritionally poor soil +, Maritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Insects +
Has flowers of colourwhite +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageElaeagnus umbellata2.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partWood +
Has material useFuel +
Has mature height4.5 +
Has mature width4 +
Has medicinal partFlowers +, Fruit + and Seeds +
Has medicinal useAstringent +, Cardiac +, Stimulant +, Cancer + and Pectorial +
Has primary imageElaeagnus umbellata2.jpg +
Has search nameelaeagnus umbellata + and x +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationYes +
Has seed with dormancy depthIntermediate +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameElaeagnus umbellata +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +, Secondary canopy + and Shrub +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is grown fromSeeds +, Cutting + and Layering +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Provides forage forBumble Bee +
Show on main page searchYes +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilYes +
Tolerates windYes +