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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3]. A dry flesh, it is used in jellies[4]. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter and is borne in small clusters[5]. It often persists on the tree until spring[5]. This suggests that it does not make very good eating[K]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].

Fruit

Material uses

Very amenable to trimming, the plant can even be cut right back into very old wood and will resprout freely. It is often used as a hedge[6]. Wood - fine-grained, hard and heavy. Used for tool handles etc[7][8][9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[10]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[10]. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious[10]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[10].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[11]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[12]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[13]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[13]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Crataegus crus-galli. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[14][5]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[5]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[5]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[14][5]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[5].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -18°c[15]. A very ornamental plant[16][14]. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value[5]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[5]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[17]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[14].

This plant is often confused in cultivation with C. prunifolia. 'Splendens'[14].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Crataegus crus-galli. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Crataegus crus-galli.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Crataegus crus-galli
Genus
Crataegus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Crataegus-crus-galli-habit.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)
  5. ? 5.005.015.025.035.045.055.065.075.085.095.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  11. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
  12. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  15. ? Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (1990-00-00)
  16. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  17. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)

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Facts about "Crataegus crus-galli"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyRosaceae +
Belongs to genusCrataegus +
Functions asHedge +
Has binomial nameCrataegus crus-galli +
Has common nameCockspur Thorn +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeMidges +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageCrataegus-crus-galli-habit.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useWood +
Has mature height10 +
Has mature width10 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useCardiotonic + and Hypotensive +
Has primary imageCrataegus-crus-galli-habit.JPG +
Has search namecrataegus crus-galli + and cockspur thorn +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameCrataegus crus-galli +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Crataegus crus-galli +, Crataegus crus-galli +, Crataegus crus-galli + and Crataegus crus-galli +