A yellow dye is obtained from the bark.Wood - strong, hard, heavy, tough, elastic, close grained, moderately durable. It weighs 41lb per cubic foot, seasons well, takes a good polish and is shock resistant. One of the most valuable of the North American timbers, it is much used for tool handles, hockey sticks, baseball bats, the interior of buildings, musical instruments, furniture, woodenware etc. As a fuel it is comparable in quality to such excellent species as oak (Quercus spp) and hickory (Carya spp).
The inner bark is diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and strongly laxative. It is used as a tea to remove bile from the intestines, as a tonic after childbirth and to relieve stomach cramps and fevers. It is chewed and applied as a poultice to sores. The leaves are used to soothe the itching caused by mosquito bites and bee stings.The seeds are thought to be aphrodisiac.
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One of the most valuable hardwood timber trees in N. America, saplings grow slowly at first, but the growth rate speeds up over the next 50 years. This species is planted on a small scale, mainly in E. Europe, as a timber tree. It has the potential as a forestry tree in Britain, succeeding under conditions that are too dry or frosty for the native ash, F. excelsior. A very ornamental tree, it is often confused in cultivation with F. pennsylvanica.Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Male trees usually flower heavily each year, but female trees only flower heavily every 2 - 3 years.
Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
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Polycultures & Guilds
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