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Uses

Toxic parts

Poisonous[1][2]. Most members of this genus are toxic to grazing animals and are usually avoided by them[3]. The seed also contains toxins[3].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves and young plants - cooked[4][5][6]. They must be thoroughly boiled and then washed[7]. Caution is advised, the plant is probably poisonous[8]. Seed - raw or cooked[9]. It can be used as a piñole[10]. The seed can be ground into a powder and mixed with flour for making bread, cakes etc[5][10]. The seed contains about 36.7% protein, 38.6% fat, 5.2% ash[7]. It also contains a glycoside[7] and is probably poisonous.

Leaves

Material uses

The dried leaves are a source of tannin[11].

A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves[12]. The seed powder has been used as a blue body paint[10]. The dried plant repels weevils from stored wheat grain[12].

The seed contains an essential oil[13].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaves and root are anodyne, antirheumatic, appetizer, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, laxative and sedative[14][15][12][3]. The plant is considered to be useful in treating long-standing cases of malaria[16] and is used as an adulterant for Datura stramonium[14]. An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, diseased kidneys and tuberculosis[10]. It has also been used as a liniment on the armpits to reduce perspiration[10].

The fruits contain a number of medically active compounds including glycosides and phytosterols[17]. They are anodyne, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antitussive, cytotxic, hypoglycaemic and stomachic[18][17]. They are used internally in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, catarrh, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, lumbago, leprosy and pruritis[18][10]. They are also used externally to treat pruritis[18]. The fruits are harvested when ripe and dried for later use[18]. The root is a bitter tonic and febrifuge[16]. It has historically been used in the treatment of scrofulous tumours[3]. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of high fevers and to help a woman expel the afterbirth[10].

A decoction of the seeds has been used in the treatment of bladder complaints[10]. A poultice of the powdered seed has been applied as a salve on open sores[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring or autumn in situ[18]. The seed requires plenty of moisture in order to germinate.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Xanthium strumarium. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a sunny position, succeeding in most soils. Prefers a poor dry soil[18].

Hardy to about -15°c[18].

Plants often self sow and in some parts of the world have become noxious weeds[18].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Xanthium strumarium. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Xanthium strumarium.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Xanthium strumarium
Genus
Xanthium
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Craighead. J., Craighead. F. and Davis. R. A Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers The Riverside Press ISBN 63-7093 (1963-00-00)
    10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.1010.11 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    13. ? 13.013.1 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (2002-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.618.718.8 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    19. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
    20. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)

    "image:Illustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Xanthium strumarium"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyCompositae +
    Belongs to genusXanthium +
    Has binomial nameXanthium strumarium +
    Has common nameCocklebur +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves + and Seed +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has hardiness zone7 +
    Has imageIllustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typeAnnual +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Essential +
    Has mature height0.75 +
    Has mature width0.4 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnodyne +, Antibacterial +, Antifungal +, Antirheumatic +, Antispasmodic +, Appetizer +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emollient +, Febrifuge +, Laxative +, Sedative +, Antitussive +, Antiperiodic +, Hypoglycaemic +, Cytotoxic + and Stomachic +
    Has primary imageIllustration Xanthium strumarium0.jpg +
    Has search namexanthium strumarium + and cocklebur +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameXanthium strumarium +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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