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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - raw or cooked[1]. Usually harvested in the spring[2], it can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[2][3][4]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails[5].

The leaves and twigs yield 'spruce oil', used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc[5].

A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips[2][6][7][8][5][9]. These tips are also an ingredient of 'spruce beer'[5].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

Yields a resin similar to Abies balsamea, it is gathered by incisions in the trunk or by boiling the wood[3][10][11].

A pitch (called hemlock pitch), is obtained by distillation of the young branches[3]. 'Oil of Hemlock' is distilled from the young branches according to another report[12]. The bark contains 8 - 14% tannin[3][13][14]. The inner bark is used according to one report[12]. The inner bark has been used in making baskets[9]. A red to brown dye is obtained from the bark[15][3][9]. A red dye is obtained from the inner bark according to another report[16]. A little rock dust has been added to act as a mordant when boiling the bark[9]. The boiled bark has been used to make a wash to clean rust off iron and steel, and to prevent further rusting[9]. Tolerant of light trimming, plants can be grown as a hedge[17]. This species does not make a good hedge in Britain[18]. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way[19]. 'Pendula' is slow-growing but makes a very good cover[19].

Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, brittle, not durable outdoors[15][3][10][12][13][20]. Difficult to work because it splits easily[16]. The wood weighs 26lb per cubic foot[21]. The trees do not self-prune and so the wood contains numerous remarkably hard knots that can quickly dull the blade of an axe[16]. A coarse lumber, it is used occasionally for the outside of buildings[15][3][10][12][13][20]. It should be used with caution as a fuel for outdoor fires because it can project embers and burning wood several metres from the fire[16].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Canadian hemlock was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints[9]. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent and antiseptic properties.

The bark is rich in tannin and is astringent and antiseptic[22][23]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulitis and cystitis[23]. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and sore throats[22][23]. The poultice has also been applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there[9]. The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic[15][1][9]. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains[15][1][9]. A decoction of the inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions[9]. The pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding[9]. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and rheumatism[15][22][9]. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating[22]. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints[9]. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to treat infections on an infants navel[9].

Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover


Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it germinates better if given a short cold stratification[24][25] and so is best sown in a cold frame in autumn to late winter. It can also be sown in early spring, though it might not germinate until after the next winter. If there is sufficient seed, an outdoor sowing can be made in spring[26]. Pot-grown seedlings are best potted up into individual pots once they are large enough to handle - grow them on in a cold frame and plant them out in early summer of the following year. Trees transplant well when they are up to 80cm tall, but they are best put in their final positions when they are about 30 - 45 cm or less tall, this is usually when they are about 5 - 8 years old[18]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Tsuga canadensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it thrives best when growing in a deep well-drained soil in the western parts of Britain where it appreciates the higher rainfall[27]. However, it succeeds in most soils and positions, being especially good on acidic sandy soils[17] but also tolerating some lime[27] so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil[19]. Plants are very shade tolerant when young, but need more sunlight as they grow older[17][18]. Plants are thin and poor when grown in dry or exposed places[18].

A slow-growing but long-lived species in the wild, with specimens nearly 1000 years old recorded[20]. It is occasionally planted as a timber tree in Germany[28]. It is very slow growing in cultivation for the first few years, it then grows more rapidly with annual shoots up to 60cm long. This rate of growth soon slows as the tree loses apical dominance and it becomes slow growing again[29]. Seed production commences around the age of 20 - 40 years, with good crops produced every 3 - 4 years[20]. The crushed foliage has a sweet lemony scent[29]. Another report says that it emits the unpleasant smell of hemlock[30]. Many named forms have been selected for their ornamental value[29]. Almost all of them are dwarf forms[18].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[18].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Tsuga canadensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Tsuga canadensis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Tsuga canadensis
Genus
Tsuga
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    20 x 8 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.8 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.119.129.139.149.159.16 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.515.615.7 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.618.718.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.4 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.122.222.322.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.123.223.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    24. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    25. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    26. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    27. ? 27.027.127.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    28. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    29. ? 29.029.129.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
    30. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)

    "image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Tsuga canadensis"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyPinaceae +
    Belongs to genusTsuga +
    Functions asGround cover + and Hedge +
    Has binomial nameTsuga canadensis +
    Has common nameCanadian Hemlock +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Inner bark +
    Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeWind +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageTsuga canadensis2.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useBasketry +, Dye +, Resin +, Rust treatments +, Tannin + and Wood +
    Has mature height20 +
    Has mature width8 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntipruritic +, Astringent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Skin + and Styptic +
    Has primary imageTsuga canadensis2.jpg +
    Has search nametsuga canadensis + and canadian hemlock +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameTsuga canadensis +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy + and Soil surface +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis +, Tsuga canadensis + and Tsuga canadensis +