The leaves and twigs yield 'spruce oil', used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc.A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips. These tips are also an ingredient of 'spruce beer'.
A pitch (called hemlock pitch), is obtained by distillation of the young branches. 'Oil of Hemlock' is distilled from the young branches according to another report. The bark contains 8 - 14% tannin. The inner bark is used according to one report. The inner bark has been used in making baskets. A red to brown dye is obtained from the bark. A red dye is obtained from the inner bark according to another report. A little rock dust has been added to act as a mordant when boiling the bark. The boiled bark has been used to make a wash to clean rust off iron and steel, and to prevent further rusting. Tolerant of light trimming, plants can be grown as a hedge. This species does not make a good hedge in Britain. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way. 'Pendula' is slow-growing but makes a very good cover.Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, brittle, not durable outdoors. Difficult to work because it splits easily. The wood weighs 26lb per cubic foot. The trees do not self-prune and so the wood contains numerous remarkably hard knots that can quickly dull the blade of an axe. A coarse lumber, it is used occasionally for the outside of buildings. It should be used with caution as a fuel for outdoor fires because it can project embers and burning wood several metres from the fire.
The bark is rich in tannin and is astringent and antiseptic. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulitis and cystitis. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and sore throats. The poultice has also been applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there. The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains. A decoction of the inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions. The pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and rheumatism. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to treat infections on an infants navel.Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism.
Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Tsuga canadensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.
A slow-growing but long-lived species in the wild, with specimens nearly 1000 years old recorded. It is occasionally planted as a timber tree in Germany. It is very slow growing in cultivation for the first few years, it then grows more rapidly with annual shoots up to 60cm long. This rate of growth soon slows as the tree loses apical dominance and it becomes slow growing again. Seed production commences around the age of 20 - 40 years, with good crops produced every 3 - 4 years. The crushed foliage has a sweet lemony scent. Another report says that it emits the unpleasant smell of hemlock. Many named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Almost all of them are dwarf forms.Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
There are no interactions listed for Tsuga canadensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? to add it.
Polycultures & Guilds
There are no polycultures listed which include Tsuga canadensis.
This table shows all the data stored for this plant.
- Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
- Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
- Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
- Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
- Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
- Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
- Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
- McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
- Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
- Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
- Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
- Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
- Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
- Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-00-00)
- Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
- Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
- Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
- Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
- Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
- Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
- Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
- Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
- Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
- McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
- Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
- Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
- Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
- ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
- Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
- Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
"image:Tsuga canadensis2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.