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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked. Used in spring[1], the young unfolding leaves are an excellent addition to the salad bowl, tasting somewhat like sunflower seeds[2]. Leaves can also be cooked as a potherb[2].

Leaves

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Trillium erectum.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Beth root was traditionally used by various native North American Indian tribes as a woman's herb to aid childbirth, as a treatment for irregular menstrual periods, period pains and excessive vaginal discharge[3]. Modern research has shown that the root contains steroidal saponins, which have hormonal effects on the body[4][5]. These saponins are being used in gynaecological and obstetric medicine[5]. This herb should not be taken during pregnancy except under professional supervision[3].

The root is antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, expectorant, tonic, uterine tonic[6][7][8][9][4][5]. It is used internally in the treatment of a wide range of women's complaints including haemorrhage from the uterus, urinary tract and lungs, and also to curb excessive menstruation[5]. It has proved to be of value in stopping bleeding after parturition[10]. Externally, it is used to treat excessive vaginal discharge, ulcers (especially varicose), skin complaints, gangrene, insect bites and stings[5][10]. It is also used as a wash for sore nipples[10]. The root is harvested in late summer, after the leaves have died down, and is dried for later use[11][5].

The whole plant is used as a poultice for tumours, inflammations and ulcers[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a shaded cold frame as soon as it is ripe[12][13]. Stored seed should be sown in late winter or early spring. Seed usually germinates within 1 - 3 months at 15°c. Another report says that seeds produce a root after the first cold stratification but no shoot is produced until after a second winter[14], whilst yet another report says that the seed can take 3 years to germinate[5]. The seedlings are prone to damp off and must therefore be watered with care and given plenty of fresh air[14]. The young plants need to be overwintered in a cold frame for the first year and can then be planted out in late spring. It is very important that the pots become neither too dry nor too wet[14]. Division with care when the plants die down after flowering[13]. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the following spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Trillium erectum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a deep well-drained woodland or humus-rich soil in a somewhat shady position that remains moist in the summer[15][16]. Prefers a neutral to slightly acid soil[13]. Grows well in open deciduous woodland[15][17]. Succeeds in a sunny position if the soil does not dry out[16]. Succeeds in deep shade[18].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -35°c[5]. Plants are long-lived[19]. Any transplanting is best done whilst the plants are in flower[13]. A very variable species[13], it is subject to mutation[17]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits[19], though slugs are very fond of the leaves[5]. The flowers have an unattractive smell rather like putrefied flesh[16][1][20]. The white-flowered form, blandum, is almost scentless[20].

Plants can flower in two years from seed[14].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Trillium erectum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Trillium erectum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Trillium erectum
Genus
Trillium
Family
Trilliaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2624-6 (1993-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.85.9 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    12. ? Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (1988-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 3. Thompson and Morgan. (1989-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Grey. C. H. Hardy Bulbs. Williams & Norgate. (1938-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Phillips. R. and Rix. M. Bulbs Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30253-1 (1989-00-00)
    18. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    21. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-43

    "image:Trillium erectum 01.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Trillium erectum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyTrilliaceae +
    Belongs to genusTrillium +
    Has binomial nameTrillium erectum +
    Has common nameBeth Root +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeFlies +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageTrillium erectum 01.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height0.4 +
    Has mature width0.3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Aphrodisiac +, Astringent +, Birthing aid +, Expectorant +, Poultice +, Tonic + and Uterine tonic +
    Has primary imageTrillium erectum 01.jpg +
    Has search nametrillium erectum + and beth root +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameTrillium erectum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum +, Trillium erectum + and Trillium erectum +