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Uses

Toxic parts

This plant has been known to cause problems for grazing animals, though this has never happened in Britain[1]. The problem may be associated with the climate in which the plant is growing[1]. The species is polymorphic for cyanogenic glycosides[2]. The leaves and flowers of certain cyanogenic phenotypes contain a glycoside which releases cyanide on contact with the enzyme linamarase[2].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked as a potherb[3][4][5]. The young leaves are harvested before the plant comes into flower and are used in salads, soups etc[6]. They can also be used as a vegetable, cooked like spinach[6]. The leaves are best cooked[7].

Flowers and seed pods are dried, ground into powder and used as a flour or sprinkled on cooked foods such as boiled rice[5]. Very wholesome and nutritious[8]. The young flowers can also be used in salads[9][7][5]. Root - cooked[7][10]. The dried leaves impart a vanilla flavour to cakes etc[7].

Dried flowering heads are a tea substitute.

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

The plant makes a good green manure, it is useful for over-wintering, especially in a mixture with Lolium perenne[11]. Produces a good bulk. It is a host to 'clover rot' however, so should not be used too frequently[11]. It can be undersown with cereals or with tomatoes in a greenhouse (sow the seed before planting the tomatoes)[11]. Fairly deep rooting but not very fast growing[11]. A good fast ground-cover plant for a sunny position[11].
There are no material uses listed for Trifolium repens.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The plant is antirheumatic, antiscrophulatic, depurative, detergent and tonic[2]. An infusion has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds, fevers and leucorrhoea[12].

A tincture of the leaves is applied as an ointment to gout[2].

An infusion of the flowers has been used as an eyewash[12].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Green manure


Ground cover


Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ.

If the seed is in short supply it might be better to sow it in pots in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring.

Division in spring[13].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Trifolium repens. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun, preferring a sweet calcareous clay soil. Succeeds in poor soils.

A very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[14] it is also a good bee plant[15]. A good companion plant in the lawn, tolerating trampling[16][15], but it dislikes growing with henbane or members of the buttercup family[16]. It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better[17]. It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias[17]. Polymorphic, there are many subspecies and varieties. Some varieties have also been selected for use in lawn mixes[5].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[18]. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate[17].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Trifolium repens. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Trifolium repens.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Trifolium repens
Genus
Trifolium
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. ISBN 0-911010-54-8 (1962-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    8. ? 8.08.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    9. ? 9.09.1 Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana ISBN 0-00-634436-4 (1976-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Woodward. L. Burge. P. Green Manures. Elm Farm Research Centre. (1982-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    13. ? Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    14. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    19. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

    "image:Trifolium April 2010-2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Trifolium repens"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyLeguminosae +
    Belongs to genusTrifolium +
    Functions asGreen manure +, Ground cover + and Nitrogen fixer +
    Has binomial nameTrifolium repens +
    Has common nameWhite Clover +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Leaves + and Root +
    Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeBees +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageTrifolium April 2010-2.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height0.1 +
    Has mature width1 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +, Antiscrophulatic +, Depurative +, Detergent +, Ophthalmic + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageTrifolium April 2010-2.jpg +
    Has search nametrifolium repens + and white clover +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameTrifolium repens +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens +, Trifolium repens + and Trifolium repens +