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Uses

Toxic parts

Diseased clover, even if no symptoms of disease are visible, can contain toxic alkaloids[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves and young flowering heads - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5]. The young leaves are harvested before the plant comes into flower, and are used in salads, soups etc[6]. On their own they can be used as a vegetable, cooked like spinach[6].The leaves are best cooked[7]. They can be dried, powdered and sprinkled on foods such as boiled rice[5]. The leaves contain 81% water, 4% protein, 0.7% fat, 2.6% fibre and 2% ash[8].

The seed can be sprouted and used in salads. A crisp texture and more robust flavour than alfalfa (Medicago sativa)[5]. The seeds are reported as containing trypsin inhibitors[8]. These can interfere with certain enzymes that help in the digestion of proteins, but are normally destroyed if the seed is sprouted first. Flowers and seed pods - dried, ground into a powder and used as a flour[9]. The young flowers can also be eaten raw in salads[10][7]. Root - cooked[7][11]. A delicate sweet herb tea is made from the fresh or dried flowers[12][3][5].

The dried leaves impart a vanilla flavour to cakes etc[7].

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers[13][14]. The plant makes a good green manure, it is useful for over-wintering, especially in a mixture with Lolium perenne[15]. Deep rooting, it produces a good bulk[16]. It is a host to 'clover rot' however, so should not be used too frequently[16]. It can be undersown with cereals though it may be too vigorous[16]. It is also grown with grass mixtures for land reclamation, it has good nitrogen fixing properties[17].

Unknown part

Dye

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Red clover is safe and effective herb with a long history of medicinal usage. It is commonly used to treat skin conditions, normally in combination with other purifying herbs such as Arctium lappa and Rumex crispus[18]. It is a folk remedy for cancer of the breast, a concentrated decoction being applied to the site of the tumour in order to encourage it to grow outwards and clear the body[18]. Flavonoids in the flowers and leaves are oestrogenic and may be of benefit in the treatment of menopausal complaints[18].

The flowering heads are alterative, antiscrofulous, antispasmodic, aperient, detergent, diuretic, expectorant, sedative and tonic[19][12][20][8][21]. It has also shown anticancer activity[7][8], poultices of the herb have been used as local applications to cancerous growths[19]. Internally, the plant is used in the treatment of skin complaints (especially eczema and psoriasis), cancers of the breast, ovaries and lymphatic system, chronic degenerative diseases, gout, whooping cough and dry coughs[21]. The plant is normally harvested for use as it comes into flower[1][21] and some reports say that only the flowers are used[19].

The toxic indolizidine alkaloid 'slaframine' is often found in diseased clover (even if the clover shows no external symptoms of disease). This alkaloid is being studied for its antidiabetic and anti-AIDS activity[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Green manure


Soil builder


Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ.

If the seed is in short supply it might be better to sow it in pots in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring.

Division in spring[21].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Trifolium pratense. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun[17]. Prefers a medium-heavy loam[16].

A short-lived perennial[17]. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -23°c[21]. A very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[22]. It is also a good bee plant[15], but not so valuable as the white clover, T. repens[19]. It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better[23]. It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias[23]. Very polymorphic, there are many subspecies and varieties.

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[17]. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate[23].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Trifolium pratense. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Trifolium pratense.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Trifolium pratense
Genus
Trifolium
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Rotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Rotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  10. ? 10.010.1 Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana ISBN 0-00-634436-4 (1976-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Woodward. L. Burge. P. Green Manures. Elm Farm Research Centre. (1982-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.417.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.421.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  22. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.123.2 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  24. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Rotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Trifolium pratense"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyLeguminosae +
Belongs to genusTrifolium +
Functions asGreen manure +, Soil builder + and Nitrogen fixer +
Has binomial nameTrifolium pratense +
Has common nameRed Clover +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Leaves +, Root + and Seed +
Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeBees + and Lepidoptera +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone6 +
Has imageRotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +
Has mature height0.6 +
Has mature width0.6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAlterative +, Antiscrophulatic +, Antispasmodic +, Aperient +, Cancer +, Detergent +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Miscellany +, Sedative +, Skin + and Tonic +
Has primary imageRotklee Trifolium pratense.jpg +
Has search nametrifolium pratense + and red clover +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameTrifolium pratense +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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