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Uses

Toxic parts

If the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves - raw[2]. They make an excellent salad or sandwich filling, they are mild tasting and somewhat mucilaginous[K]. The leaves can be available from spring until early autumn from the young growths at the base of the tree[K]. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose[2][3]. A popular herb tea is made from the flowers, it has a sweet, fragrant pleasant flavour[4]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Sap - harvested in the spring, it is sweet and can be used as a drink or concentrated into a syrup[1].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc[5][6][7][4][8][9]. It is also suitable for cloth[3]. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 - 30cm in diameter[3]. The fibre can also be used for making paper[10]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige in colour[10]. Wood - soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items[1][6][4][8][3]. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing[4][8][3].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable[11]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative[1][11][6][12][13]. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation[1][13]. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc[12]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[13]. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[14]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[14]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[14]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[14]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[15]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[16].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Tilia cordata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but it also succeeds on slightly acid soils[16]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soil[16]. Tolerates considerable exposure[125, K]. Succeeds in sun or semi-shade[17]. Plants can be transplanted quite easily, even when large, trees up to 60 years old have been moved successfully[5][18]. Trees are very amenable to coppicing or pollarding[19]. They produce numerous suckers from the base[20]. Suckers are produced but not freely according to another report[19]. This species produces far less suckers than T. platyphyllos or T. x vulgaris[13]. This species grows well in Britain, but it rarely produces viable seed in areas with cool summers[16]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[13]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[19]. Mature trees cast a dense shade[19]. A very valuable bee plant, producing an abundance of nectar[19]. A valuable species for wildlife, there are 31 species of insects associated with this tree[21]. The leaves are very attractive to leaf aphis and these aphis produce an abundance of sweet secretions which drip off the leaves to the ground below and also attract sooty mould fungus[19]. This makes the tree unsuitable for street planting. This species, however, is less likely to become infested with aphis than T. platyphyllos or T. x vulgaris[13]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[17]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[16].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Tilia cordata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Tilia cordata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Tilia cordata
Genus
Tilia
Family
Tiliaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-01-01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-01-01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-01-01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-01-01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-01-01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-01-01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-01-01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-01-01)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-01-01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-01-01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.6 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-01-01)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-01-01)
  15. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-01-01)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-01-01)
  18. ? Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-01-01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.419.5 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-01-01)
  20. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  21. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  22. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-11
  23. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-01-01)
Facts about "Tilia cordata"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Belongs to familyTiliaceae +
Belongs to genusTilia +
Has binomial nameTilia cordata +
Has common nameSmall Leaved Lime +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useChocolate +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeBees +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageTilia-cordata2.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCharcoal +, Fibre +, Paper + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width12 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Diaphoretic +, Expectorant +, Hypotensive +, Laxative +, Sedative + and Skin +
Has primary imageTilia-cordata2.JPG +
Has search nametilia cordata + and small leaved lime +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameTilia cordata +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata +, Tilia cordata + and Tilia cordata +