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Uses

Toxic parts

There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated. See also notes in 'Cultivation Details'.

Edible uses

Material uses

The leaves are rich in tannin, up to 48% has been obtained in a controlled plantation[5]. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant[6][7]. The bark, especially the root bark, and the fruits are also very rich in tannin[8][9][6]. A yellow dye can be obtained from the roots[10]. An orange dye can be obtained from the inner bark and central pith of the stem, mixed with bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)[10]. A black ink can be made by boiling the leaves and the fruit[11]. An oil is extracted from the seeds[12]. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke[12]. Pipes are made from the young shoots and are used for drawing the sap of sugar maples (Acer spp)[8]. They are also used as flutes[9]. The plant has an extensive root system and is planted as a windbreak screen and to prevent soil erosion[13]. Wood - soft, light, brittle, coarse grained[8][14]. It weighs 27lb per cubic foot[15]. Of no commercial value, though it is sometimes used as a rough construction wood or is employed in turning[11].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Stag's horn sumach was often employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its astringent qualities[10]. It is little used in modern herbalism. Some caution is advised in the use of the leaves and stems of this plant, see the notes above on toxicity. The bark is antiseptic, astringent, galactogogue and tonic[16][10]. An infusion is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, fevers, piles, general debility, uterine prolapse etc[17][16]. An infusion is also said to greatly increase the milk flow of a nursing mother - small pieces of the wood were also eaten for this purpose[10]. The inner bark is said to be a valuable remedy for piles[10]. The roots are astringent, blood purifier, diuretic and emetic[16]. An infusion of the roots, combined with purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) has been used in the treatment of venereal disease[10]. A poultice of the roots has been used to treat boils[10]. The leaves are astringent. They have been used in the treatment of asthma, diarrhoea and stomatosis[16]. An infusion of the fruits has been used as a tonic to improve the appetite and as a treatment for diarrhoea[10]. The berries are astringent and blood purifier[10]. They were chewed as a remedy for bed-wetting[16][10]. A tea made from the berries has been used to treat sore throats[17]. The flowers are astringent and stomachic. An infusion has been used to treat stomach pains[10]. The sap has been applied externally as a treatment of warts[11]. Some caution is advised here since the sap can cause a rash on many people[K].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Windbreak


Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 - 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors[13]. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame[13]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame[13]. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage[18][13]. Suckers in late autumn to winter[13].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Rhus typhina. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun[19][13]. Tolerates poor soils[6][13]. Succeeds in dry soils and is drought resistant once it is established[6]. A fairly wind hardy plant, though the branches are brittle and can be broken off in very high winds[200, K]. A very hardy plant, when fully dormant it can tolerate temperatures down to at least -25°c[13]. However, the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A fast growing but short-lived tree[9], it can sucker freely, forming thickets and becoming quite anti-social when grown in small areas[19]. Single-stem plants are short-lived in cultivation, but if the plants are coppiced regularly and allowed to form thickets, then they will live longer and also be more ornamental with larger leaves[20]. Any coppicing is best carried out in early spring[20]. A very ornamental plant, there are some named varieties[21]. It is susceptible to coral spot fungus[19] but is notably resistant to honey fungus[22][13]. It transplants easily[6]. This is a very good bee plant, the flowers producing an abundance of pollen and nectar[11]. There is some doubt over the validity of this name and the earlier R. hirta. [L.] has been proposed as the correct name. However, it seems likely that R. typhina will be retained because it is so well known[23]. This species is closely related to and hybridizes with R. glabra[14]. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs[24][12]. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists[13]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Rhus typhina. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Rhus typhina.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Rhus typhina
Genus
Rhus
Family
Anacardiaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x 6
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Brosen rhus typhina1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Brosen rhus typhina1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Brosen rhus typhina1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Brosen rhus typhina1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Sholto-Douglas. J. Alternative Foods. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Dave Hamilton [Stag Horn Sumac ? Rhus typhina The Forager?s Lemon] (2012/10/09)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  7. ? 7.07.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-257
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.0013.0113.0213.0313.0413.0513.0613.0713.0813.0913.1013.1113.12 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (32202/01/01)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.5 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (32202/01/01)
  18. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (32202/01/01)
  22. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (32202/01/01)
  23. ? Matthews. V. The New Plantsman. Volume 1, 1994. Royal Horticultural Society ISBN 1352-4186 (32202/01/01)
  24. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  25. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-43

Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-229" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.


"image:Brosen rhus typhina1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Rhus typhina"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyAnacardiaceae +
Belongs to genusRhus +
Functions asHedge +, Windbreak + and Earth stabiliser +
Has binomial nameRhus typhina +
Has common nameStag's Horn Sumach +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +
Has edible useDrink +, Seasoning + and Cooked +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageBrosen rhus typhina1.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Ink +, Mordant +, Musical +, Oil +, Pipes +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height6 +
Has mature width6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntihaemorrhoidal +, Antiseptic +, Astringent +, Blood purifier +, Diuretic +, Emetic +, Galactogogue +, Poultice +, Stomachic +, Tonic +, VD + and Warts +
Has primary imageBrosen rhus typhina1.jpg +
Has search namerhus typhina + and stag's horn sumach +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationNo +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameRhus typhina +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina +, Rhus typhina + and Rhus typhina +