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Uses

Toxic parts

There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated. See also notes in 'Cultivation Details'.

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4][5][6]. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried, mixed with cornmeal or made into a jam[7]. The fruit is small with very little flesh, but it is produced in fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. When soaked for 10 - 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course)[2][3][6][7]. The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter[8].

Unknown part

Fruit

Material uses

The leaves are rich in tannin. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a black to brown dye or as a mordant[9][10]. The fruits can also be used as a mordant[10].

A yellow dye is obtained from the twigs[6]. black dye can be obtained when the twigs are mixed with pine gum[10]. A red-brown dye can be made from the bark and leaves[10]. A pink-tan dye can be made from the fruit[10]. The ashes of the plant can be used as a mordant to fix dyes[10]. An oil is extracted from the seeds[11]. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke[11]. The roots have been used as a perfume and deodorant[10]. The buds have been used on the body as a medicinal deodorant and perfume[10]. The leaves have been rubbed on the body as an insect and snake repellent[10]. Some caution should be employed here, see the notes above on toxicity[K].

The branches are tough and slender, they are stripped of their bark and split into several strands then used in basket making[12][3][4][5][6][10].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Skunk bush was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for its astringent qualities and used it to treat a range of complaints[10]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. Due to its potentially toxic nature, it should be used with some caution and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

The fruit is analgesic, astringent and stomachic[10]. It has been eaten as a treatment for stomach problems and grippe[10]. The dried berries have been ground into a powder and dusted onto smallpox pustules[10]. The fruit has been chewed as a treatment for toothache and also used as a mouthwash[10]. A decoction of the fruit has been used as a wash to prevent the hair falling out[10]. The leaves are astringent, diuretic, emetic and haemostatic[10]. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of head colds[10]. A decoction of the leaves has been drunk to induce impotency as a method of contraception[10]. A poultice of leaves has been used to treat itches[10]. An infusion of the bark has been used as a douche after childbirth[10]. The bark has been chewed, and the juice swallowed, as a treatment for colds and sore gums[10]. A decoction of the root bark has been taken to facilitate easy delivery of the placenta[10].

The roots have been used as a deodorant[10]. The buds have been used on the body as a medicinal deodorant and perfume[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 - 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors[8]. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame[8]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame[8]. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage[13][8].

Suckers in late autumn to winter[8].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Rhus trilobata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun[14][8], but produces its best fruit when grown close to moist ground[2]. Judging by the plants native habitat it should succeed in dry soils[K].

The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. This species is closely allied to R. aromatica[14]. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds[8]. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus[14]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[8]. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs[15][11]. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists[8].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Rhus trilobata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Rhus trilobata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Rhus trilobata
Genus
Rhus
Family
Anacardiaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (1967-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (1975-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. ISBN 0-911010-54-8 (1962-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.108.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
    10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.1010.1110.1210.1310.1410.1510.1610.1710.1810.1910.2010.2110.2210.2310.2410.2510.26 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    13. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    15. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)

    "image:Rhus trilobata 3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Rhus trilobata"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyAnacardiaceae +
    Belongs to genusRhus +
    Has binomial nameRhus trilobata +
    Has common nameSkunk Bush +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Fruit +
    Has edible useDrink + and Unknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bees +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageRhus trilobata 3.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useBasketry +, Deodorant +, Dye +, Mordant +, Oil +, Repellent + and Tannin +
    Has mature height1.8 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Antipruritic +, Astringent +, Contraceptive +, Deodorant +, Diuretic +, Emetic +, Haemostatic +, Odontalgic +, Oxytoxic + and Stomachic +
    Has primary imageRhus trilobata 3.jpg +
    Has search namerhus trilobata + and skunk bush +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameRhus trilobata +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata +, Rhus trilobata + and Rhus trilobata +