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Uses

Toxic parts

The plant is toxic if taken internally, tending to dissolve the blood corpuscles[1]. The bark, and possibly other parts of the plant, contains saponins[2]. Although toxic, saponins are very poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass through without causing harm, they are also destroyed by thorough cooking. Saponins are found in many plants, including several that are often used for food, such as certain beans. It is advisable not to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Quillaja saponaria.

Material uses

The fresh or dried inner bark is a soap substitute[2][3][1]. It contains about 9% saponins and is a very gentle and effective cleaner[3][1]. It is used for cleaning textiles and the skin[4][5][3][1]. It can also be used as a hair tonic[3][1]. The saponins are also used in anti-dandruff shampoos and exfoliant cleansers[6]. They are used as a foaming agent in fire extinguishers[6]. The bark also contains considerable quantities of carbonate of lime[4].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Soap bark tree has a long history of medicinal use with the Andean people who used it especially as a treatment for various chest problems[7]. The saponin content of the bark helps to stimulate the production of a more fluid mucous in the airways, thus facilitating the removal of phlegm through coughing[7]. The tree is useful for treating any condition featuring congested catarrh within the chest, but it should not be used for dry irritable coughs[7]. The inner bark contains about 9% of complex saponins, known collectively as 'quillajasaponin'[6]. It also contains calcium oxalate and tannin[6]. It has been used internally as a stimulating expectorant, though it can cause irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract and so is no longer considered safe[2][6]. The internal use of this plant needs to be carefully overseen by a professional practitioner[7]. Sap bark tree is used as a source of compounds for the pharmaceutical industry[6]. It is still used externally as a cutaneous stimulant in the treatment of skin ulcers and eruptions, dandruff etc[1][6].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer and give some protection from the cold for at least their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of fully ripe wood of the current year's growth, November in a frame[6].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quillaja saponaria. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position[8].

Plants are hardy to about -12°c in their natural range in South America[9] but they usually require greenhouse protection in Britain[4]. They can succeed outdoors in the milder areas of this country, often as small shrubs but making a tree in the very mildest areas[9]. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts, so it is best to site the plant in a position sheltered from the early morning sun.

This species is cultivated for the saponins in its bark in some warm temperate areas of the world[6].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quillaja saponaria. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quillaja saponaria.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quillaja saponaria
Genus
Quillaja
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
10
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    18 x 6 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Quillaja saponaria12.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quillaja saponaria12.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Quillaja saponaria12.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Quillaja saponaria12.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.7 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    6. ? 6.006.016.026.036.046.056.066.076.086.096.10 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (1990-00-00)

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