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Uses

Toxic parts

None known

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked[1][2][3][4]. Nourishing but indigestible[5]. Chopped and roasted, the seed is used as an almond substitute[3]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread[6]. The seed contains bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the seed in running water though many minerals will also be lost[7]. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[8][9]. An edible gum is obtained from the bark[10]. Another report says that an edible manna is obtained from the plant and that it is used instead of butter in cooking[6]. This report probably refers to the gum[K].

Unknown part

Material uses

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth[11][12]. The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[13]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The bark is very rich in calcium[14]. Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[5]. A black dye and an excellent long-lasting ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron[5][15][16]. The colour is not very durable[5]. When mixed with alum, the dye is brown and with salts of tin it is yellow[5]. Trees can be coppiced to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc[17]. The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin[18]. Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves[19]. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains11.6% tannin and the wood 9.2%[19]. The bark strips easily from the wood in April and May[5]. A purplish dye is obtained from an infusion of the bark with a small quantity of copperas[5]. It is not bright, but is said to be durable[5]. Wood - hard, tough, durable even under water - highly valued for furniture, construction etc[5][4][9][16]. It is also a good fuel[20] and charcoal[9].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The oak tree has a long history of medicinal use. It is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, decongestant, haemostatic and tonic[5][15][21][4][8][22]. The bark is the part of the plant that is most commonly used[5], though other parts such as the galls, seeds and seed cups are also sometimes used[15]. A decoction of the bark is useful in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, haemorrhages etc[5]. Externally, it is used to bathe wounds, skin eruptions, sweaty feet, piles etc[21]. It is also used as a vaginal douche for genital inflammations and discharge, and also as a wash for throat and mouth infections[21]. The bark is harvested from branches 5 - 12 years old, and is dried for later use[21]. Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[5]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Despondency', 'Despair, but never ceasing effort'[23]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the bark. It is used in the treatment of disorders of the spleen and gall bladder[21].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[24]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Quercus robur. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[24]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[25]. Succeeds in heavy clay soils[4] and in wet soils so long as the ground is not water-logged for long periods[26]. Dislikes dry or shallow soils but is otherwise drought tolerant once it is established[26]. Tolerant of exposed sites though it dislikes salt-laden winds[26]. The oak is a very important timber tree in Britain, it is also a very important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterfly[27], there are 284 insect species associated with this tree[28]. It has often been coppiced or pollarded for its wood in the past[17], though this should not be done too frequently[26], about once every 50 years is the average. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[25][29]. Older trees have a thick corky bark and this can protect them from forest fires, young trees will often regenerate from the base if cut down or killed back by a fire[26]. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young[24]. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[25]. Immune to attacks by the tortix moth[30]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[31][25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Quercus robur. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Quercus robur.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Quercus robur
Genus
Quercus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Quercus robur.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.





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References

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  2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-01-01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers ISBN 0-7225-0445-4 (1977-01-01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-01-01)
  5. ? 5.005.015.025.035.045.055.065.075.085.095.105.115.125.135.145.15 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-01-01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-01-01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-01-01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-01-01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-01-01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-01-01)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-01-01)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber ISBN 0-571-09990-4 (1977-01-01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-01-01)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.4 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-01-01)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-01-01)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Wright. D. Complete Book of Baskets and Basketry. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7449-4 (1977-01-01)
  18. ? 18.018.1 ? Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. ()
  19. ? 19.019.119.2 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-01-01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-01-01)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.421.5 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-01-01)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  23. ? 23.023.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-01-01)
  24. ? 24.024.124.224.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-01-01)
  25. ? 25.025.125.225.325.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
  26. ? 26.026.126.226.326.4 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-01-01)
  27. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-01-01)
  28. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  29. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-01-01)
  30. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-01-01)
  31. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-01-01)
  32. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-01-01)