Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Young shoot tips - used as a flavouring in cooked foods[1][2]. A subtle woodsy flavour[3].

A refreshing tea is made from the young leaves and twigs[4][5][2][6]. Rich in vitamin C[3]. It is used as a coffee substitute according to some reports[7][8][9][6]. The fresh leaves have a pleasant balsamic odour and are used as a coffee substitute[10]. Inner bark - dried, ground into a meal and mixed with cereals for making bread etc[9][10]. A famine food used when all else fails[2].

A sweet manna-like substance is exuded from the bark[2][3]. This report possibly refers to the resin that is obtained from the trunk[K], and is used as a chewing gum by various native North American Indian tribes[11]. Alternatively, the report could be referring to the sap which is used as a sugar-like food[6].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Sap

Material uses

A light brown dye is obtained from the bark[12][6].

The bark is a source of tannins[5][13]. The bark can be used as a cork substitute[14] and is also used to make fertilizer[11]. The bark contains pitch, it burns with a lot of heat and almost no smoke, so it is prized as a fuel[11][6]. The small roots have been used to make baskets[6]. The plant has insecticidal properties[14]. A resin is obtained from the trunk, similar to Abies balsamea[15][16] which is used in the manufacture of glues, candles, as a cement for microscopes and slides and also as a fixative in soaps and perfumery[14]. The resin can also be used as a caulking material on boats[6]. A fast growing and fairly wind-resistant tree, it is often used in shelterbelt plantings[17].

Wood - heavy, strong, fine grained, durable, though it can be of variable quality. It dries quickly, does not warp and is easily worked, it is used for heavy construction, telegraph poles, furniture etc[18][5][15][13][19][14][20][11]. It is also used as a good quality fuel[5][19][6].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Douglas fir was often employed medicinally by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints[6]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.

An antiseptic resin is obtained from the trunk. It is used as a poultice to treat cuts, burns, wounds and other skin ailments[11][6]. The poultice is also used to treat injured or dislocated bones[6]. The resin is used in the treatment of coughs and can be chewed as a treatment for sore throats[6]. An infusion of the green bark has been used in the treatment of excessive menstruation, bleeding bowels and stomach problems[6]. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash and a sweat bath for rheumatic and paralyzed joints[6]. An infusion of the young sprouts has been used in the treatment of colds[6]. An infusion of the twigs or shoots has been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder problems[6]. A decoction of the buds has been used in the treatment of venereal disease[6]. Young shoots have been placed in the tips of shoes to keep the feet from perspiring and to prevent athletes foot[6].

A mouthwash is made by soaking the shoots in cold water[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in the autumn to winter in a cold frame so that it is stratified[21]. The seed can also be stored dry and sown in late winter. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Seedlings tolerate light shade for their first few years of growth. Cones often fall from the tree with their seed still inside[21]. If you have plenty of seed then it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in early spring[21]. Grow the plants on for at least two years in the seedbed before planting them out in late autumn or early spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist but not water-logged alluvial soil[22]. Dislikes calcareous soils[22]. Trees are a failure on dry hungry soils.[23]. Whilst they are moderately wind resistant[24], tall specimens are likely to lose their crowns once they are more than 30 metres tall in all but the most sheltered areas[17].

A very ornamental tree[22], it is the most cultivated timber tree in the world and is extensively used for re-afforestation in Britain[20]. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value[25]. Trees can be established in light shade but this must be removed in the first few years or growth will suffer[17]. Very slow growing for its first few years, growth soon becomes extremely fast with new shoots of up to 1.2 metres a year[17]. This annual increase can be maintained for many years[17]. Trees in sheltered Scottish valleys have reached 55 metres in 100 years[20]. New growth takes place from May to July[17]. The trees require abundant rainfall for good growth[23][26]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[20]. Trees are very long-lived, specimens over 1,000 years old are known[11]. Seed production commences when trees are about 10 years old, though good production takes another 15 - 20 years[27]. Good crops are produced about every 6 years[27]. This tree is a pioneer species because it cannot reproduce under its own canopy[11]. The bark on mature trees can be 30cm thick, and this insulates the trunks from the heat of forest fires[10]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[28][20]. Young growth can be damaged by late frosts[28].

The leaves have a strong sweet fruity aroma[17].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pseudotsuga menziesii. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pseudotsuga menziesii.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Genus
Pseudotsuga
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life [30]
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    20 x 20
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.



    Windbreak

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing ISBN 0-273-00098-5 (32202/01/01)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (32202/01/01)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (32202/01/01)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
    6. ? 6.006.016.026.036.046.056.066.076.086.096.106.116.126.136.146.156.166.176.186.196.20 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (32202/01/01)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (32202/01/01)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.611.711.811.9 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (32202/01/01)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Gunther. E. Ethnobotany of Western Washington. University of Washington Press ISBN 0-295-95258-X (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (32202/01/01)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (32202/01/01)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.417.517.617.7 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (32202/01/01)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (32202/01/01)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.520.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (32202/01/01)
    22. ? 22.022.122.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    23. ? 23.023.123.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
    24. ? Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (32202/01/01)
    25. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (32202/01/01)
    26. ? Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
    27. ? 27.027.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (32202/01/01)
    28. ? 28.028.1 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (32202/01/01)
    29. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (32202/01/01)
    30. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named http:.2F.2Fwww.missouribotanicalgarden.org.2Fgardens-gardening.2Fyour-garden.2Fplant-finder.2Fplant-details.2Fkc.2Fe890.2Fpseudotsuga-menziesii.aspx

    Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-17" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.



    "image:Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Pseudotsuga menziesii"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteFalse +
    Article requires citationsFalse +
    Article requires cleanupFalse +
    Belongs to familyPinaceae +
    Belongs to genusPseudotsuga +
    Functions asWindbreak +
    Has binomial namePseudotsuga menziesii +
    Has common nameDouglas Fir +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Inner bark + and Sap +
    Has edible useCoffee +, Condiment +, Gum +, Unknown use +, Manna + and Tea +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone7 +
    Has imagePseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useBasketry +, Cork +, Dye +, Fertilizer +, Fuel +, Insecticide +, Resin +, Tannin + and Wood +
    Has mature height20 +
    Has mature width20 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +, Antiseptic +, Kidney +, Mouthwash +, Poultice + and Skin +
    Has primary imagePseudotsuga menziesii glauca cones.jpg +
    Has search namepseudotsuga menziesii + and douglas fir +
    Has seed requiring scarificationFalse +
    Has seed requiring stratificationFalse +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy namePseudotsuga menziesii +
    Has water requirementshigh +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates air pollutionFalse +
    Tolerates maritime exposureFalse +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilFalse +
    Tolerates windFalse +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii +, Pseudotsuga menziesii + and Pseudotsuga menziesii +