This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark[1][2][3]. It is best used in spring[4]. Mucilaginous[3]. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Catkins - raw or cooked. A bitter flavour[4].

Flowers

Inner bark

Material uses

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day[4].

The resin obtained from the buds was used by various native North American Indian tribes to waterproof the seams on their canoes[5]. The resin on the buds has been used as an insect repellent[3]. The bark has been burnt to repel mosquitoes[3]. A pioneer species, capable of invading cleared land and paving the way for other woodland trees[6]. It is not very shade tolerant and so it is eventually out-competed by the woodland trees.

Wood - soft, light, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, very resistant to abrasion[7][8][9][10]. It weighs 23lb per cubic foot[11], and is used for pulp, boxes etc[7][8][9][10]. The wood is also used as a fuel, it gives off a pleasant odour when burning[5].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments[3]. In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic.

The leaf buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, tonic[12][8][9][13][4]. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste[14].They are boiled in order to separate the resin and the resin is then dissolved in alcohol[15]. The resin is a folk remedy, used as a salve and wash for sores, rheumatism, wounds etc[15][3]. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for sprains, inflammation, muscle pains etc[15]. Internally, the tea is used in the treatment of lung ailments and coughs[15]. The buds can also be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages[14]. The bark is cathartic and tonic[12]. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body[14][16]. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps[16].

A tea made from the inner bark is used as an eye wash and in the treatment of scurvy[15].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Pioneer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring[17]. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening[18]. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing[7].

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 20 - 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy.

Suckers in early spring[19].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Populus balsamifera. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil[20], though it prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain[7][18]. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils[7]. Does not do well in exposed upland sites[7]. Dislikes shade, it is intolerant of root or branch competition[18].

A fast-growing and generally short-lived tree, though specimens 150 - 200 years old have occasionally been recorded[229. This is a pioneer species, invading cleared land, old fields etc, but unable to tolerate shade competition and eventually being out-competed by other trees[6]. It is not fully satisfactory in Britain[7]. In spring and early summer the buds and young leaves have a strong fragrance of balsam[21][22]. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building's foundations by drying out the soil[7]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[18].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Populus balsamifera. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Populus balsamifera.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Populus balsamifera
Genus
Populus
Family
Salicaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    30 x 8 meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.8 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.87.9 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    17. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    19. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    20. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    21. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    22. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    23. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-43

    "image:Populus balsamifera.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Populus balsamifera"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familySalicaceae +
    Belongs to genusPopulus +
    Functions asPioneer +
    Has binomial namePopulus balsamifera +
    Has common nameBalsam Poplar +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFlowers + and Inner bark +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone2 +
    Has imagePopulus balsamifera.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useRepellent +, Resin +, Rooting hormone + and Wood +
    Has mature height30 +
    Has mature width8 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnodyne +, Antiinflammatory +, Antiscorbutic +, Antiseptic +, Cathartic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Febrifuge +, Stimulant + and Tonic +
    Has primary imagePopulus balsamifera.jpg +
    Has search namepopulus balsamifera + and balsam poplar +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy namePopulus balsamifera +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera +, Populus balsamifera + and Populus balsamifera +