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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - dried and ground into a powder and used in making bread[2][3][4][5]. It is often mixed with oatmeal[6]. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails[6]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[7].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[8].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[9]. A reddish yellow dye is obtained from the cones[10]. This tree yields resin and turpentine[11][3][12][13]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[11]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[14][11]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[11]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[11] and is separated by distillation[14][11]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[14]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[14]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used in perfumery and medicinally[15][16]. A fibre from the inner bark is used to make ropes[6]. The roots are very resinous and burn well. They can be used as a candle substitute[6]. The leaves are used as a packing material[15]. The fibrous material is stripped out of the leaves and is used to fill pillows, cushions and as a packing material[17]. Trees are very wind resistant and quite fast growing. They can be planted as a shelterbelt, succeeding in maritime exposure[18][7].

Wood - light, soft, not strong, elastic, durable, rich in resin. Used in construction, furniture, paper manufacture etc.[19][15][12]. A good fuel but it is somewhat smokey[10][3][6].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Scot's pine has quite a wide range of medicinal uses, being valued especially for its antiseptic action and beneficial effect upon the respiratory system. It should not be used by people who are prone to allergic skin reactions whilst the essential oil should not be used internally unless under professional supervision[20].

The turpentine obtained from the resin is antirheumatic, antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient and vermifuge[14][19][15]. It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney, bladder and rheumatic affections, and also in diseases of the mucous membranes and the treatment of respiratory complaints[14]. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers[14]. The leaves and young shoots are antiseptic, diuretic and expectorant[21]. They are harvested in the spring and dried for later use[21]. They are used internally for their mildly antiseptic effect within the chest and are also used to treat rheumatism and arthritis[20]. They can be added to the bath water for treating fatigue, nervous exhaustion, sleeplessness, skin irritations[21]. They can also be used as an inhalant in the treatment of various chest complaints[21]. The essential oil from the leaves is used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory infections, and also for digestive disorders such as wind[20]. An essential oil obtained from the seed has diuretic and respiratory-stimulant properties[20]. The seeds are used in the treatment of bronchitis, tuberculosis and bladder infections[20]. A decoction of the seeds can be applied externally to help suppress excessive vaginal discharge[20]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Self-reproach', 'Guilt feelings' and 'Despondency'[22].

The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Invigorating'[23].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[24]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[25]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[7]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[7]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[26].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus sylvestris. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[27][25]. Trees grow well on poor dry sandy soils[25][26]. Fairly shade tolerant[28]. Prefers a light acid soil, becoming chlorotic at a pH higher than 6.5[28]. Trees can succeed for many years on shallow soils over chalk[29]. Tolerates chalk for a while, but trees are then short-lived[26]. Tolerates some water-logging[28]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[27]. Established plants tolerate drought[28]. Very wind resistant[30][18], tolerating maritime exposure[31]. Tolerates atmospheric pollution[32].

Fairly long-lived, to 200 years or more and quite fast growing[29], but trees are very slow growing in wet soils[26]. Young trees can make new growth of 1 metre a year though growth slows down rapidly by the time the tree is 18 metres tall[29]. This species is extensively used in cool temperate forestry as a timber tree[7]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[7]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[7]. Cones take two seasons to ripen[17]. Plants are easily killed by fire and cannot regenerate from the roots[28]. A good food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterflies[33]. This tree has over 50 species of associated insects[26]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[34]. There are several named forms selected for their ornamental value[35].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[7].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus sylvestris. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus sylvestris.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus sylvestris
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  7. ? 7.007.017.027.037.047.057.067.077.087.097.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.6 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.520.6 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.4 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use. Amberwood Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-9517723-0-9 (1993-00-00)
  24. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.125.225.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  26. ? 26.026.126.226.326.4 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  28. ? 28.028.128.228.328.4 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  29. ? 29.029.129.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  30. ? Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  31. ? Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (1990-00-00)
  32. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  33. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  34. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  35. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  36. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-17

"image:Pinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus sylvestris"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has common nameScot's Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Inner bark +
Has edible useSeasoning + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has imagePinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Essential +, Fibre +, Fuel +, Herbicide +, Lighting +, Packing +, Resin + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has mature width10 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +, Antiseptic +, Aromatherapy +, Bach +, Balsamic +, Diuretic + and Expectorant +
Has primary imagePinus sylvestris Nethybridge.jpg +
Has search namepinus sylvestris + and x +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy namePinus sylvestris +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +