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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - raw or cooked[2]. Mucilaginous[3][4][5]. Best harvested in the spring[2]. The inner bark can be eaten fresh, but is more often dried, ground into a powder and either used as a thickener in soups or is mixed with flour for making bread etc[K].

Seed - raw or cooked[6][7][3][8][2]. Rich in oil, the seed has a slightly resinous flavour. Quite small, it is only about 8mm long[9]. The seed can be crushed into a meal and used in making bread etc[5]. The resin has been chewed as a gum[8][2]. Young male cones have been chewed for the juice[2].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[9].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10].

A yellow dye can be made from the pollen[8]. A blue dye can be made from the roots[2]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[11]. The branches are used as a strewing herb[12]. A decoction of the plant tops has been used as a conditioning wash to give a person a fair and smooth skin[2]. A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in shelterbelt plantings[9]. This tree is a source of resin, though it is not exploited commercially[7][13]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[7]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[14][7]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[7]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[7] and is separated by distillation[14][7]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[14]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[14]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative, adhesive etc[2]. It burns well and so has been used to make torches[2]. The root fibres have been used in making baskets[2]. Material for insulation and a tinder are also obtained from the tree[12]. The cones make a quick fire, whilst the scales from the trunk bark burn easily, give off no smoke and cool quickly[5].

Wood - light, strong, fine-grained and pleasantly aromatic, the wood can vary from soft to hard[15][16][17][13][8][18]. An important lumber tree, it is used for making furniture, boxes, toys etc[15][16][17][13][8][18], and it is also used for fuel[12]. For reasons that are unclear, some tree stumps contain high concentrations of pitch - this makes them very rot-resistant and inflammable and therefore useful for fence posts and kindling[8].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Ponderosa pine was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for its antiseptic and vulnerary properties, using it to treat a range of skin problems, cuts, wounds, burns etc[2]. It was also valued for its beneficial effect upon the respiratory system and was used to treat various chest and lung complaints[2].

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[14]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[14]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[14]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[14]. The branches are used in herbal steam baths as a treatment for muscular pains[2]. A decoction of the plant tops has been used in the treatment of internal bleeding and high fevers[2].

An infusion of the dried buds has been used as an eye wash[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[19]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[20]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[9]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[9]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[21].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus ponderosa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[15][20]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[15]. Established plants tolerate drought[9]. Seedlings strongly dislike growing in the shade[22] and are unable to succeed under the canopy of the parent trees[8]. Plants are fairly wind tolerant[9].

Extensively used in cool temperate forestry[9], this species is occasionally planted for timber in central and southern Europe[23]. Growth can be quite fast when young but it soon drops of and averages around 30cm per year[24]. The best trees in Britain are found in a belt running from Kent through the Midlands to N. Wales and also in S. Scotland[24]. Trees live 300 - 600 years in the wild[18], they seem to be long-lived and healthy in Britain[24]. Seed production commences when the tree is about 20 years old[18]. There are usually several years of low to medium yields between each year of high yields[18]. The cones are 8 - 15cm long, they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree and then soon fall from the tree[17][8]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[9]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[9]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[25].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus ponderosa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus ponderosa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus ponderosa
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
25 x 7 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.122.132.142.152.162.17 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.8 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.88.9 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.119.129.13 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (1979-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.814.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  19. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  21. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)
  23. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  25. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)

"image:Pinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Pinus ponderosa"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPinus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has binomial namePinus ponderosa +
Has common namePonderosa Pine +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Inner bark + and Seed +
Has edible useCondiment +, Gum + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imagePinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Cosmetic +, Dye +, Fuel +, Herbicide +, Insulation +, Resin +, Strewing +, Tinder + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has mature width7 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge +, Ophthalmic +, Pectoral +, Poultice +, Rubefacient +, Salve +, Skin +, Vermifuge + and Vulnerary +
Has primary imagePinus ponderosa 8144t.jpg +
Has search namepinus ponderosa + and ponderosa pine +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePinus ponderosa +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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