This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[2].

Unknown part

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[3].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[4]. A very wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[2]. Trees have proved to be very resistant to maritime exposure on our Cornwall trial grounds[K]. Resin and turpentine are obtained from the wood, they are used in ointments and plasters[5][6][7]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[6]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[8][6]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[6]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[6] and is separated by distillation[8][6]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[8]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[8]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Wood - non durable. Used for rough carpentry and furniture[9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[8]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[8]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[8]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[8].
There are no medicinal uses listed for Pinus nigra laricio.

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[10]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[2]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[2]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[12].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus nigra laricio. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam and on well-drained clays[13][11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade[13][11]. Established plants tolerate drought[2]. Succeeds on thin chalky soils[11][2] and in severe maritime exposure[185, K].

A very hardy tree[13], it is extensively planted for timber and shelter[14][2]. Slow growing for its first few years, it then speeds up considerably and annual height increases up to 1 metre are often found[15]. New growth takes place from early May to mid-July[15]. Requires at least reasonable summer warmth in order to ripen its wood, otherwise it can suffer from die-back caused by Brunchorstia destruens. However, healthy trees are found as far north in Britain as Sutherland in Scotland[15]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[2]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[2]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[16]. Plants are short-lived in cultivation[11][15].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[2].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus nigra laricio. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus nigra laricio.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus nigra laricio
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
30 x 8 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.12 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  7. ? 7.07.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.88.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  10. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  12. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  16. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)