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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2][3]. The oil-rich seed has a resinous flavour. Rather small, the seed is only 5mm long[4]. The seed is up to 9mm long[5][6].

An edible gummy exudation from the stem is used as a chewing gum[7]. Inner bark - raw or cooked[3][7]. The inner bark can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread[7]. The roasted young cones can be eaten[7].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[4].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[8].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[9]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[10]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[11][10]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[10]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[10] and is separated by distillation[11][10]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[11]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[11]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Wood - straight and close-grained, soft, light, not strong, very durable, resistant to shrinking and warping. An important timber tree, it is used in making doors, shelves, flooring, construction etc[12][13][5][14][6]. The wood has dark knots, making it attractive for panelling[15].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[11]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[11][7]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[11][7]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[11].

An infusion of the bark has been used as a blood purifier and in the treatment of stomach disorders and tuberculosis[7]. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash on cuts and sores[7].

A decoction of the young shoots has been used as a soak in the treatment of rheumatism[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[16]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[17]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[4]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[4]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus monticola. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam in a sunny position[19][17]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[19]. Established plants tolerate drought[4].

A fast growing tree, capable of sustaining growth of 75cm per year over a long period of time even when in an unfavourable site. This species establishes very well on severely altered sites such as after a forest fire[6]. Trees on a site 300m above sea level in N. Wales have grown exceptionally well[20]. Girth increases of up to 4cm a year have been recorded[20]. Trees take 30 - 40 years before they produce reliable crops of seeds[6]. Good crops are produced every 2 - 4 years in the wild, with little seed in the intervening years[6]. The cones are 12 - 27cm long and take 2 years to mature[5][6], they open and shed their seed in late summer and early autumn whilst still attached to the tree[5][15]. Very susceptible to 'white pine blister rust' this tree should not be planted near Ribes species (currants and gooseberries) because they can transmit the rust(1, 11, 120). Most of the older trees in this country have been killed by the rust. However, it seems that infection only occurs when the trees are young in this country and new plantings in areas isolated from species of Ribes are being made[20]. Plants are also subject to damage by aphis. Trees have a thin bark, which makes them susceptible to forest fires[15]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[4]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[4]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[21].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[4].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus monticola. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus monticola.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus monticola
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus monticola0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus monticola0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus monticola0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus monticola0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.74.84.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.6 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.7 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  7. ? 7.007.017.027.037.047.057.067.077.087.097.10 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.611.711.811.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  16. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  18. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  21. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)

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