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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6][7]. A good size, up to 15mm x 10mm[8]. A pleasant sweet nutty flavour[9][10], with a hint of resin[3]. The nut, together with the shell, can be pulverised into a nut butter[11].

A sugar is obtained from boiling off the water in the sap[2][3][5][6][12]. Some caution is advised since it is laxative if used in large quantities[13]. A sweet sugar-like substance exudes from wounds made in the heartwood of the tree[14][15][10] and also from the cones. It is sometimes used for sweetening foods, though in large quantities it is laxative[3][10]. The pitch obtained from the trunk is allowed to harden and is then used as a chewing gum[7].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[8].

Unknown part

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[16].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[17]. Yields a pitch, though it is not commercially important[18]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[18]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[19][18]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[18]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[18] and is separated by distillation[19][18]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[19]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[19]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The resin is used as an adhesive[7].

Wood - light, soft, straight but coarse grained. Used for lumber, interior finishes etc[20][15][11][21][22].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[19]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[19]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[19]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[19]. The sap is carminative and laxative[7]. The dried sap powder has been eaten in the treatment of stomach gas, constipation, ulcers etc[20][23][11][6][12]. It has also been used to make eye drops to treat sore eyes[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[24]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[9]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[8]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[8]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[14].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus lambertiana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[2][9]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[2]. Established plants tolerate drought[8]. Plants have a deep taproot that anchors them firmly when growing in a windy site[22].

A very vigorous tree in Britain, capable of growing 1 metre per year when young[25]. The trees are long-lived in their native environment, but can take 100 years or more before they come into reliable seed bearing[22]. Even then seed production is sparse, with good yields only every 4 - 5 years[22]. The cones open and shed their seed in early autumn whilst still attached to the tree[15][26]. They are up to 45cm long and often drip with a sweet sap[14]. Unfortunately the cones are seldom borne in Britain[9], though a tree at Hawkestone Park in Shropshire often bears cones[9]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow beneath the tree[27]. Trees are susceptible to the 'white pine blister rust' and should not be grown near to blackcurrants[28][8]. This rust killed off all the plantings of this species that were made prior to 1960[25]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[8]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[8]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[8].

The crushed leaves and shoots have a sweet grapefruit-like aroma[25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus lambertiana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus lambertiana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus lambertiana
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (1975-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.6 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Coyle. J. and Roberts. N. C. A Field Guide to the Common and Interesting Plants of Baja California. Natural History Publishing Co. (1975-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. ISBN 0-911010-54-8 (1962-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.6 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.419.519.619.719.819.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.322.4 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  24. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.125.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  26. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  27. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  28. ? ? The Plantsman. Vol. 2. 1980 - 1981. Royal Horticultural Society (1980-00-00)
  29. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)

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