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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil[2][3][4][5][6][7]. A soft texture with a hint of resin in the flavour, it makes a delicious snack and can also be used as a staple food[K]. The seed can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a flavouring and thickener in soups etc[8]. Fairly large, the seeds are up to16mm x 12mm[9]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[9].

Unknown part

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10].

The seeds are a source of soap and lubricating oil[11]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[11]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[12]. Yields turpentine and tar[6]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[13]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[14][13]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[13]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[13] and is separated by distillation[14][13]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[14]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[14]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.

Wood. Used for construction and carpentry[6][7]. The timber is used for construction, bridge building, vehicles, furniture, and wood pulp[11].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The seed contains several medically active compounds and is analgesic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory[15]. It is used in Korea in the treatment of earache, epistaxis and to promote milk flow in nursing mothers[15].

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[14]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[14]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[14]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[14].

The stem bark is used in the treatment of burns and skin ailments[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[17]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[3]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[9]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[9]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[7].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus koraiensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[18][3]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[18]. Established plants tolerate drought[9]. This species prefers a cool moist climate[7].

Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby inhibiting the growth of other plants below the tree[19]. This species is sometimes cultivated for its edible seed, there are some named varieties[8]. It is one of the main species utilized for its edible seeds[9], being gathered from cultivated and wild trees. Large quantities of the seeds are exported as a food crop from N. China[8]. Plants bear cones when they are 3.5 metres tall in Cornwall[20]. Trees are slow growing when young[3][7]. Growth in the south-east of Britain is generally poor but trees in the west and north are healthy and growing well with average annual height increases of around 25cm and girth increases of 3cm or more[21]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[9]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[9]. The cones do not open, seed is extracted by breaking up the soft scales of the cone[9].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus koraiensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus koraiensis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus koraiensis
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.814.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  17. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  19. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  20. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
  21. ? Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)

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