The roots have been braided by the N. American Indians to make a rope. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat. A pitch obtained from this tree is used for waterproofing canoes, baskets, shoes etc and as a glue. It has also been used to preserve wood, baskets etc. The pitch is not a commercially important crop. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin and is separated by distillation. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.Wood - straight but coarse-grained, light, hard, strong, brittle. It varies from light and soft to hard and heavy. Easily worked, it is used for general construction, posts, poles, pulp etc. It makes a good fuel, burning well even when green because it is rich in pitch.
The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient, vermifuge and vulnerary. It is a valuable remedy when taken internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and can be used both internally and externally in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also used in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and poultices in treating a range of skin complaints, wounds, boils etc. A decoction of the young shoots has been used in the treatment of stomach pains. The young buds have been chewed in the treatment of a sore throat.The inner bark has been eaten as a blood purifier, diuretic and cathartic. A decoction has been used as a tonic and in the treatment of coughs, colds, consumption and gonorrhoea.
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The coastal form of this species is a very fast growing tree, especially when young, with new growth of 1 metre or more per year. The forms from coastal Washington and Oregon do best in Britain. The sub-species P. contorta latifolia is normally slower growing than the species type though it is sometimes faster in some inland sites at higher altitudes. New growth takes place from mid-April until early July. Trees are long-lived, with specimens 600 years old recorded. Extensively cultivated for timber in N. Europe, this is an aggressive colonizing species that can form huge pure stands following a forest fire or clear-felling an area for timber. Trees can be shrubby in habit when they are grown on poor sites. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow below the tree. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. This species hybridises in the wild with P. banksiana where their ranges overlap. Trees come into flower at an early age, usually between 6 and 10 years. Good seed crops are produced every 1 - 3 years. The cones are 2 - 5cm long, they open and shed their seed whilst still attached to the tree, though many of the cones will remain unopened on the tree, preserving the vitality of the seeds until they are stimulated to open by excessively hot weather or a forest fire.Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
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