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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2]. Rich in oil with a slightly resinous flavour[K]. They are very small and fiddly to utilize, being only 2 - 3mm long[3].

Young cones - cooked[2]. Inner bark[4]. No more information is given, but the bark can usually be eaten raw or cooked. It can also be dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or can be mixed with cereal flours when making bread etc[K]. A refreshing drink is made from the leaves[5][2].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[3].

Unknown part

Flowers

Inner bark

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[6].

Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes[7][4]. In a sandy soil, the roots of this species extend near the surface of the soil for perhaps 10 metres and are easy to pull out of the ground for their entire length. When gathered, they were made into coils and sunk beneath the surface of water until the outer bark had loosened from the root. They were then peeled and split in half, each half being a serviceable cord for sewing together canoes and bark strips intended for the roofs of wigwams and other purposes[4]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[8]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[9]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[10][9]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[9]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[9] and is separated by distillation[10][9]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[10]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[10]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc[4].

Wood - fairly light, soft, coarse, weak[11][12][13][7]. It weighs 27lb per cubic foot[14]. It is mainly used for fuel, though occasionally also for posts, pulp and lumber[11][12][13][7].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[10]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[10]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[10]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[10].

A poultice of the inner bark has been used in the treatment of deep cuts[4].

The leaves have been used in a herbal steam bath to clear congested lungs[4]. They have also been used as a fumigant to revive a comatose patient[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[15]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[16]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[3]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[3]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[17].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus banksiana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[18]. The trees have an extensive root system and are well adapted for growing in poor sandy soils[16][7], they are often used as a pioneer tree for reforestation[7]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shady positions[18]. Starts away well on almost any soil, whether poorly drained or shallow and dry[19]. Established plants tolerate drought[3].

A fast growing tree when young[3], but growth soon slows down and the tree is short-lived in Britain with no tree known to be older than 75 years[19]. New shoots can be almost 1 metre long, though the tree remains spindly[19]. An open-topped tree, though plants sometimes have a shrubby habit of growth[13]. They can start producing seed when only a few years old[13]. The cones are 4- 5cm long[13]. They ripen in their second year but can remain un-opened on the tree for a number of years, only opening and shedding their seed after a forest fire has heated them to at least 50°c[7]. This makes them one of the first colonizers of burnt land[7]. Cultivated for timber in C. Europe[20]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[3]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[3]. This species hybridises in the wild with P. contorta where their ranges overlap[7]. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value[3]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby inhibiting the growth of other plants below the tree[21].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[3].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus banksiana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus banksiana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus banksiana
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
12 x 5 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Pinus banksiana pollen cones.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.103.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.74.84.9 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.8 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.5 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.710.810.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
  15. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  17. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  20. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  21. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  22. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

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